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Bioelectromagnetics. 2019 Jun 3. doi: 10.1002/bem.22195. [Epub ahead of print]

Morphological Changes Induced By Extremely Low-Frequency Electric Fields.

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Department of Biomedical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), Tehran, Iran.
Department of Immunotherapy and Regenerative Medicine, Breast Cancer Research Center, Motamed Cancer Institute, ACECR, Tehran, Iran.
Department of Recombinant Proteins, Breast Cancer Research Center, Motamed Cancer Institute, ACECR, Tehran, Iran.
INSF Chair of Computational Electromagnetics and Bio-electromagnetics, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.


In this paper, morphological effects of electric fields on avian erythrocytes (nucleated red blood cells) have been studied in detail. Morphological changes include rounding and cytoplasm transparency. It has been shown that the effect is non-thermal. Careful imaging and image analyses have been carried out to show that the degree of this effect is frequency-dependent, and has a higher conversion rate at higher temperatures. Furthermore, to better understand the mechanisms behind the morphological changes, we investigated the dedifferentiation hypothesis and performed a series of tests on avian erythrocytes including fluorescence spectroscopy for hemoglobin, and tests on human umbilical cord blood, mesenchymal stem cells, and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells including flow-cytometry analysis for expression of certain markers and calcium staining. Bioelectromagnetics. 2019;1-16.


cell morphology; dedifferentiation; electric field; extremely low frequency; non-thermal effects


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