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Res Social Adm Pharm. 2019 May 22. pii: S1551-7411(19)30020-8. doi: 10.1016/j.sapharm.2019.05.009. [Epub ahead of print]

Characterization of pharmacy practice research centers across the United States.

Author information

1
Center for Pharmacy Practice Innovation, Department of Pharmacotherapy & Outcomes Science, School of Pharmacy, Virginia Commonwealth University, 410 N. 12th Street, Box 980533, Richmond, VA, 23298, United States. Electronic address: tmsalgado@vcu.edu.
2
Center for Pharmacy Practice Innovation, Department of Pharmacotherapy & Outcomes Science, School of Pharmacy, Virginia Commonwealth University, 410 N. 12th Street, Box 980533, Richmond, VA, 23298, United States. Electronic address: japatterson2@vcu.edu.
3
School of Pharmacy, Virginia Commonwealth University, 410 N. 12th Street, Box 980533, Richmond, VA, 23298, United States. Electronic address: bajajsk@vcu.edu.
4
Department of Clinical and Administrative Pharmacy Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Howard University, 2300 4th St., NW, Washington, DC, 20059, United States. Electronic address: estela.lajthia@howard.edu.
5
Center for Pharmacy Practice Innovation, Department of Pharmacotherapy & Outcomes Science, School of Pharmacy, Virginia Commonwealth University, 410 N. 12th Street, Box 980533, Richmond, VA, 23298, United States. Electronic address: kzimmerman@vcu.edu.
6
Research Institute for Medicines (iMed.ULisboa), Department of Social-Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Lisbon, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto, 1649-003, Lisboa, Portugal. Electronic address: f-llimos@ff.ulisboa.pt.
7
Center for Pharmacy Practice Innovation, Department of Pharmacotherapy & Outcomes Science, School of Pharmacy, Virginia Commonwealth University, 410 N. 12th Street, Box 980533, Richmond, VA, 23298, United States. Electronic address: dldixon@vcu.edu.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Schools of Pharmacy are important contributors to pharmacy practice research and several have created research centers focusing on this area.

OBJECTIVES:

To identify and characterize pharmacy practice research centers in the United States.

METHODS:

A comprehensive list of research centers was gathered using three sources: 1) websites of Schools of Pharmacy obtained from the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy website; 2) Google; and 3) department chairs. Two independent reviewers applied the following exclusion criteria to the list: 1) no affiliation with a School of Pharmacy; 2) no focus on research; 3) not an independent unit recognized at the school or university levels; and 4) research not focused on advancing pharmacy practice. Inter-rater reliability was calculated using a prevalence-adjusted bias-adjusted kappa (PABAK). A questionnaire was developed comprising 24 questions grouped into three sections - overall structure of the center, research and educational activities - and disseminated through center directors. Descriptive statistics of survey data were obtained.

RESULTS:

Twenty centers across 20 different states were identified. Survey response rate was 100%. Three-quarters of centers were at public institutions and half had an advisory board. Full-time equivalents ranged from 0.2 to 21. Areas of research primarily focused on medication and disease-state management and interprofessional collaboration in the ambulatory/outpatient setting. Few centers (35%) conducted experimental studies. Despite 85% centers conducting multi-site studies, the median number of sites engaged was low (range 1-3). Seven centers received over USD 1 million in total funding since inception. A majority of centers (90%) offered educational activities for both students and professionals.

CONCLUSIONS:

Pharmacy practice research centers are relatively small, received low funding and few conduct multi-site experimental studies. Collaboration among centers could be a means to overcome these issues.

KEYWORDS:

Faculty; Pharmacy [MeSH]; Pharmacy research [MeSH]; Research [MeSH]; Schools; United States [MeSH]

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