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Methods Enzymol. 2019;622:129-151. doi: 10.1016/bs.mie.2019.02.006. Epub 2019 Mar 4.

Visualizing the brain's astrocytes.

Author information

1
Department of Chemistry, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, United States.
2
Department of Pharmacological Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, United States.
3
Department of Chemistry, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, United States; Institute of Chemical Biology and Drug Discovery, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, United States. Electronic address: scott.laughlin@stonybrook.edu.

Abstract

Astrocytes are the most abundant cell type in the brain and are a crucial part of solving its mysteries. Originally assumed to be passive supporting cells, astrocyte's functions are now recognized to include active modulation and information processing at the neural synapse. The full extent of the astrocyte contribution to neural processing remains unknown. This is, in part, due to the lack of methods available for astrocyte identification and analysis. Existing strategies employ genetic tools like the astrocyte specific promoters glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) or Aldh1L1 to create transgenic animals with fluorescently labeled astrocytes. Recently, small molecule targeting moieties have enabled the delivery of bright fluorescent dyes to astrocytes. Here, we review methods for targeting astrocytes, with a focus on a recently developed methylpyridinium targeting moiety's development, chemical synthesis, and elaboration to provide new features like light-based spatiotemporal control of cell labeling.

KEYWORDS:

Astrocytes; Brain imaging; Cationic fluorophore; Euroimaging; Glia imaging; Photoactivatable; Small molecules

PMID:
31155050
DOI:
10.1016/bs.mie.2019.02.006

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