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Neurochem Int. 2019 May 30:104475. doi: 10.1016/j.neuint.2019.104475. [Epub ahead of print]

Multiple sclerosis: Possibility of a gut environment-induced disease.

Author information

1
Department of Immunology, Institute of Neuroscience, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Japan.
2
Department of Immunology, Institute of Neuroscience, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Japan. Electronic address: yamamura@ncnp.go.jp.

Abstract

Multiple sclerosis is a putative autoimmune disease of the central nervous system, a representative disease of 'neuroimmunology.' We now understand that gut microbiota constitutes an integral part of our body and play critical roles in various neurological diseases with which no intestinal pathology was previously associated. In fact, several reports from Japan, North America, and Europe confirmed dysbiosis of the gut microbiome in MS patients. Given the increase in the prevalence of MS worldwide, especially in Japan, some previously unknown causal environmental factors needed to be identified to inhibit the development of MS in future generations. In this review, we will introduce recent key topics related to MS pathogenesis and immune cells linking gut and brain, and then summarize studies on gut microbiome in MS and its mouse model. Lastly, we will discuss the potential role of diet in the development of MS and propose a hypothesis that could explain the dramatic increase in the number of patients suffering with MS in Japan in the past few decades.

KEYWORDS:

Butyrate; Dysbiosis; EAE; Microbiome; Multiple sclerosis

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