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Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis. 2019 Sep 1;1865(9):2356-2367. doi: 10.1016/j.bbadis.2019.05.015. Epub 2019 May 29.

Mutations of GADD45G in rabbits cause cleft lip by the disorder of proliferation, apoptosis and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT).

Author information

1
Key Laboratory of Zoonosis Research, Ministry of Education, Institute of Zoonosis, College of Veterinary Medicine, Jilin University, Changchun 130062, China.
2
CAS Key Laboratory of Regenerative Biology, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine, South China Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Guangzhou Institutes of Biomedicine and Health, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, 510530, China.
3
Key Laboratory of Zoonosis Research, Ministry of Education, Institute of Zoonosis, College of Veterinary Medicine, Jilin University, Changchun 130062, China; CAS Key Laboratory of Regenerative Biology, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine, South China Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Guangzhou Institutes of Biomedicine and Health, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, 510530, China. Electronic address: lai_liangxue@gibh.ac.cn.
4
Key Laboratory of Zoonosis Research, Ministry of Education, Institute of Zoonosis, College of Veterinary Medicine, Jilin University, Changchun 130062, China. Electronic address: lizj_1998@jlu.edu.cn.

Abstract

The cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P) is one of the most common congenital defects in humans. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been widely used for identifying candidate genes, and different genes or chromosomal regions have shown strong evidence for the presence of causal genes in CL/P. To date, two independent GWAS have identified GADD45G as influencing risk for CL/P. However, there is no animal model evidence about GADD45G related to CL/P. Here, we reported the generation of a novel GADD45G mutated rabbit model by CRISPR/Cas9 and CRISPR-based BE4-Gam systems. The homozygous (GADD45G-/-) while not heterozygous (GADD45G+/-) pups died after birth due to severe craniofacial defects of unilateral or bilateral cleft lip (CL). Moreover, the disorder of proliferation, apoptosis and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) were also determined in the medial and lateral nasal processes (MNP and LNP) of the embryonic day 13 (E13) GADD45G-/- rabbits, which compared with the normal wild type (WT) rabbits. Thus, our study confirmed for the first time that loss of GADD45G lead to CL at the animal level and provided new insights into the crucial role of GADD45G for upper lip formation and fusion.

KEYWORDS:

BE4-Gam; CRISPR/Cas9; Cleft lip; GADD45G; Rabbit

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