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Science. 2019 May 31;364(6443):886-889. doi: 10.1126/science.aau5656.

A key metabolic gene for recurrent freshwater colonization and radiation in fishes.

Author information

1
Ecological Genetics Laboratory, National Institute of Genetics, Shizuoka, Japan.
2
Department of Genetics, Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI), Shizuoka, Japan.
3
Department of Marine Biosciences, Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, Tokyo, Japan.
4
Department of Aquatic Bioscience, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
5
Gifu World Freshwater Aquarium, Gifu, Japan.
6
Divisions of Human Biology and Basic Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA, USA.
7
Graduate School of Bioengineering and Bioinformatics, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan.
8
Department of Fish Ecology and Evolution, Eawag Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Centre for Ecology, Evolution and Biogeochemistry, Kastanienbaum, Switzerland.
9
Marine Genomics Unit, Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University, Okinawa, Japan.
10
Comparative Genomics Laboratory, National Institute of Genetics, Shizuoka, Japan.
11
Faculty of Agriculture, Ryukoku University, Otsu, Shiga, Japan.
12
Department of Marine Bioscience, Fukui Prefectural University, Obama, Fukui, Japan.
13
Department of Applied Aquabiology, National Fisheries University, Shimonoseki, Yamaguchi, Japan.
14
Institute of Ecology and Evolution, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.
15
Laboratory of Bioresources, National Institute for Basic Biology, Okazaki, Aichi, Japan.
16
Biological Laboratory, Gifu Kyoritsu University, Ogaki, Gifu, Japan.
17
Instituto de Acuicultura Torre de la Sal (IATS-CSIC), Ribera de Cabanes, Castellón, Spain.
18
Department of Surface Waters-Research and Management, Eawag Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Centre for Ecology, Evolution and Biogeochemistry, Kastanienbaum, Switzerland.
19
Department of Earth Sciences, ETH-Zurich, Zurich Switzerland.
20
Department of Aquatic Ecology, Eawag Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Centre for Ecology, Evolution and Biogeochemistry, Kastanienbaum, Switzerland.
21
Ecological Genetics Laboratory, National Institute of Genetics, Shizuoka, Japan. jkitano@nig.ac.jp.

Abstract

Colonization of new ecological niches has triggered large adaptive radiations. Although some lineages have made use of such opportunities, not all do so. The factors causing this variation among lineages are largely unknown. Here, we show that deficiency in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an essential ω-3 fatty acid, can constrain freshwater colonization by marine fishes. Our genomic analyses revealed multiple independent duplications of the fatty acid desaturase gene Fads2 in stickleback lineages that subsequently colonized and radiated in freshwater habitats, but not in close relatives that failed to colonize. Transgenic manipulation of Fads2 in marine stickleback increased their ability to synthesize DHA and survive on DHA-deficient diets. Multiple freshwater ray-finned fishes also show a convergent increase in Fads2 copies, indicating its key role in freshwater colonization.

PMID:
31147520
DOI:
10.1126/science.aau5656

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