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J Am Coll Cardiol. 2019 Jun 4;73(21):2756-2768. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2019.03.478.

ACC/AHA Versus ESC Guidelines on Heart Failure: JACC Guideline Comparison.

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Department of Cardiology, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands.
Cardiology Division, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts. Electronic address:
Cardiology Division, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts. Electronic address:


The 2013 (with updates in 2016 and 2017) American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association and 2016 European Society of Cardiology guidelines provide practical evidence-based clinical guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of both acute and chronic heart failure (HF). Both guidelines address noninvasive and invasive testing to establish the diagnosis of HF with reduced ejection fraction and HF with preserved ejection fraction. Extensive trial evidence supports the use of guideline-directed medical therapy and device-based therapies for the optimal management of patients with HF with reduced ejection fraction. Specific recommendations are also provided for HF with preserved ejection fraction although the evidence is substantially weaker. Management of medical comorbidities is now addressed in both guidelines. Acute HF and end-stage disease requiring advanced therapies are also discussed. This review compares specific recommendations across the spectrum of HF phenotypes and disease severity, highlights areas where differences exist, and lists consequential studies published since the latest guidelines.


guideline-directed therapies; heart failure; pharmacological therapies


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