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Int J Mol Sci. 2019 May 29;20(11). pii: E2632. doi: 10.3390/ijms20112632.

(E)-2-methoxy-4-(3-(4-methoxyphenyl) prop-1-en-1-yl) Phenol Ameliorates MPTP-Induced Dopaminergic Neurodegeneration by Inhibiting the STAT3 Pathway.

Author information

1
College of Pharmacy and Medical Research Center, Chungbuk National University, 194-31 Osongsaemgmyeong 1-ro, Cheongju 28160, Korea. cjy8316@hanmail.net.
2
College of Pharmacy and Medical Research Center, Chungbuk National University, 194-31 Osongsaemgmyeong 1-ro, Cheongju 28160, Korea. jyun@chungbuk.ac.kr.
3
College of Pharmacy and Medical Research Center, Chungbuk National University, 194-31 Osongsaemgmyeong 1-ro, Cheongju 28160, Korea. hcj0629@naver.com.
4
College of Pharmacy and Medical Research Center, Chungbuk National University, 194-31 Osongsaemgmyeong 1-ro, Cheongju 28160, Korea. heepom@empal.com.
5
College of Pharmacy and Medical Research Center, Chungbuk National University, 194-31 Osongsaemgmyeong 1-ro, Cheongju 28160, Korea. khdsun62@naver.com.
6
College of Pharmacy and Medical Research Center, Chungbuk National University, 194-31 Osongsaemgmyeong 1-ro, Cheongju 28160, Korea. hyungok@korea.kr.
7
College of Pharmacy, Yeungnam University, 280, Daehak-ro, Gyeongsan, Gyeongbuk 38541, Korea. parkp@yu.ac.kr.
8
College of Pharmacy, Yeungnam University, 280, Daehak-ro, Gyeongsan, Gyeongbuk 38541, Korea. dychoi@yu.ac.kr.
9
College of Pharmacy and Medical Research Center, Chungbuk National University, 194-31 Osongsaemgmyeong 1-ro, Cheongju 28160, Korea. shan@chungbuk.ac.kr.
10
College of Pharmacy and Medical Research Center, Chungbuk National University, 194-31 Osongsaemgmyeong 1-ro, Cheongju 28160, Korea. jinthong@chungbuk.ac.kr.

Abstract

Neuroinflammation is implicated in dopaminergic neurodegeneration. We have previously demonstrated that (E)-2-methoxy-4-(3-(4-methoxyphenyl) prop-1-en-1-yl) phenol (MMPP), a selective signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) inhibitor, has anti-inflammatory properties in several inflammatory disease models. We investigated whether MMPP could protect against 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced dopaminergic cell loss and behavioral impairment. Imprinting control region (ICR) mice (8 weeks old, n = 10 per group) were administered MMPP (5 mg/kg) in drinking water for 1 month, and injected with MPTP (15 mg/kg, four times with 2 h intervals) during the last 7 days of treatment. MMPP decreased MPTP-induced behavioral impairments in rotarod, pole, and gait tests. We also showed that MMPP ameliorated dopamine depletion in the striatum and inflammatory marker elevation in primary cultured neurons by high-performance liquid chromatography and immunohistochemical analysis. Increased activation of STAT3, p38, and monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) were observed in the substantia nigra and striatum after MPTP injection, effects that were attenuated by MMPP treatment. Furthermore, MMPP inhibited STAT3 activity and expression of neuroinflammatory proteins, including ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba1), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+; 0.5 mM)-treated primary cultured cells. However, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitors augmented the activity of MMPP. Collectively, our results suggest that MMPP may be an anti-inflammatory agent that attenuates dopaminergic neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation through MAO-B and MAPK pathway-dependent inhibition of STAT3 activation.

KEYWORDS:

MMPP; Parkinson’s disease; mitogen-activated protein kinase; neuroinflammation; signal transducer and activator of transcription 3

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