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Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2019 Aug 30;94:109656. doi: 10.1016/j.pnpbp.2019.109656. Epub 2019 May 27.

Meta-analyses of the functional neural alterations in subjects with Internet gaming disorder: Similarities and differences across different paradigms.

Author information

1
Center for Cognition and Brain Disorders, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province 311121, PR China; Shanghai Key Laboratory of Psychotic disorders, Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, PR China.
2
Department of Psychology, London Metropolitan University, London N7 8DB, UK.
3
School of Psychology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 10010, PR China.
4
Center for Cognition and Brain Disorders, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province 311121, PR China.
5
Department of Physics, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance, East China Normal University, Shanghai, PR China.
6
Center for Cognition and Brain Disorders, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province 311121, PR China; Zhejiang Key Laboratory for Assessment of Cognitive Impairments, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, PR China. Electronic address: dongguangheng@zjnu.edu.cn.

Abstract

Internet gaming disorder (IGD) has become a global public health concern due to its increasing prevalence and potential negative consequences. Researchers have sought to identify which brain regions are associated with this disorder. However, inconsistent results have been reported among studies due to the heterogeneity of paradigms and subjects. The present research aimed to combine the results of individual studies to provide a more coherent and powerful explanation. By selecting 40 studies utilizing a qualified whole-brain analysis, we performed a comprehensive series of meta-analyses that employed seed-based d mapping. We divided the existing experimental paradigms into 3 categories: game-related cue-reactivity, executive control, and risk-reward-related decision-making tasks. We divided all studies into three subgroups according to their paradigms. In cue-reactivity tasks, patients with IGD exhibited significant hyperactivation in the bilateral precuneus and bilateral cingulate and significant hypoactivation in the insula, but there were no differences in the striatum. In executive control tasks, patients with IGD displayed significant hyperactivation in the right superior temporal gyrus, bilateral precuneus, bilateral cingulate, and insula and hypoactivation in the left inferior frontal gyrus. In risky decision-making paradigms, IGD patients exhibited significant hyperactivation in the left striatum, right inferior frontal gyrus, and insula and hypoactivation in the left superior frontal gyrus, left inferior frontal gyrus, and right precentral gyrus. Our study aimed to discover the similarities among all studies and to explore the uniqueness of the different paradigms. This study further confirmed the critical role of reward circuitry and executive control circuitry in IGD but not under all conditions.

KEYWORDS:

Executive function; Internet gaming disorder; Meta-analysis; Reward system; fMRI

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