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New Phytol. 2019 Nov;224(3):1316-1329. doi: 10.1111/nph.15970. Epub 2019 Jul 15.

The long and short of the S-locus in Turnera (Passifloraceae).

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Department of Biology, York University, 4700 Keele Street, Toronto, ON, M3J 1P3, Canada.
School of Biological Sciences, Washington State University, PO Box 644236, Pullman, WA, 99164-4236, USA.


Distyly is an intriguing floral adaptation that increases pollen transfer precision and restricts inbreeding. It has been a model system in evolutionary biology since Darwin. Although the S-locus determines the long- and short-styled morphs, the genes were unknown in Turnera. We have now identified these genes. We used deletion mapping to identify, and then sequence, BAC clones and genome scaffolds to construct S/s haplotypes. We investigated candidate gene expression, hemizygosity, and used mutants, to explore gene function. The s-haplotype possessed 21 genes collinear with a region of chromosome 7 of grape. The S-haplotype possessed three additional genes and two inversions. TsSPH1 was expressed in filaments and anthers, TsYUC6 in anthers and TsBAHD in pistils. Long-homostyle mutants did not possess TsBAHD and a short-homostyle mutant did not express TsSPH1. Three hemizygous genes appear to determine S-morph characteristics in T. subulata. Hemizygosity is common to all distylous species investigated, yet the genes differ. The pistil candidate gene, TsBAHD, differs from that of Primula, but both may inactivate brassinosteroids causing short styles. TsYUC6 is involved in auxin synthesis and likely determines pollen characteristics. TsSPH1 is likely involved in filament elongation. We propose an incompatibility mechanism involving TsYUC6 and TsBAHD.


TsBAHD ; TsSPH1 ; TsYUC6 ; Turnera ; Distyly; Hemizygous; S-haplotypes; S-locus


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