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Indian J Sex Transm Dis AIDS. 2019 Jan-Jun;40(1):57-63. doi: 10.4103/ijstd.IJSTD_9_19.

Association of abnormal cervical cytology with coinfection of human papillomavirus and Chlamydia trachomatis.

Author information

1
Department of Dermatology and STD, University College of Medical Sciences and Guru Teg Bahadur Hospital, University of Delhi, Delhi, India.
2
Department of Health Research, National Institute of Cancer Prevention and Research, Indian Council of Medical Research, Noida, Uttar Pradesh, India.
3
Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University College of Medical Sciences and Guru Teg Bahadur Hospital, University of Delhi, Delhi, India.
4
Department of Pathology, University College of Medical Sciences and Guru Teg Bahadur Hospital, University of Delhi, Delhi, India.

Abstract

Introduction:

Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and human papillomavirus (HPV) are considered to be major sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and likely health hazard among women. In addition, HPV and CT are considered as potential cofactors in the development of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN).

Objectives:

The main objective of this study was to investigate the association of HPV and CT infection with the presence of abnormal cervical cytology.

Materials and Methods:

A cross-sectional study was carried out on 90 women with complaints of vaginal discharge attending STI clinic in a tertiary care hospital in New Delhi. Papanicolaou staining and polymerase chain reaction were done for the detection of HPV and CT. Statistical analyses were performed for comparison.

Results:

Abnormal cervical cytology was observed in 42.2% of the study participants (41.1% low-grade squamous intraepithelial neoplasia and 1.1% high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia). HPV and CT were positive in 21.1% and 31.5% of participants with abnormal cervical cytology, respectively. Coinfection with HPV and CT was observed in 84.2% of participants with cervical atypia. Further, genital herpes was diagnosed in 18.9% of the studied population and a significant association was observed between genital herpetic ulcers and abnormal cervical cytology (P = 0.016).

Conclusion:

CT was found to be a significant risk factor for cervical cytological abnormalities in our study. HPV and CT coinfection were also associated with a higher prevalence of cervical atypia. As chlamydial infection is easily treatable, we recommend screening and treatment of all women of the reproductive age group for Chlamydia to decrease the risk of cervical dysplasia.

Limitation:

This is a single-center STI clinic-based study. Multicenter and community-based studies with a larger cohort will confirm the association.

KEYWORDS:

Cervical cytological abnormality; Chlamydia trachomatis; genital herpes; human papillomavirus

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