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Indian J Sex Transm Dis AIDS. 2019 Jan-Jun;40(1):51-56. doi: 10.4103/ijstd.IJSTD_53_18.

A prospective study to evaluate efficacy of second-line antiretroviral therapy given to human immunodeficiency virus patients at Antiretroviral Therapy Plus Centre in India.

Author information

Department of Pharmacology, B J Medical College, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India.
Department of Pharmacology, P.D.U. Government Medical College, Rajkot, Gujarat, India.
Department of Pharmacology, GMERS Medical College and Hospital, Sola, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India.



Despite a very large number of patients being covered under antiretroviral therapy (ART), there are limited data in the Indian population regarding second-line ART. Hence, this study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of second-line ART.

Materials and Methods:

After consultation with the physician of ART Plus Centre, the patient was interviewed, and details of patients' case record were obtained. In our ART Plus Centre, CD4 count has been done at the start and after 6 months of second-line ART which were recorded as effectiveness indicator of second-line ART.


Out of seventy patients, 16 (22.86%) had a history of second-line ART from private ART clinics and 54 (77.14%) patients were transferred from other government ART centers. The most common reason to start second-line ART was immunological failure in 27 patients. The mean increase in CD4 count of 106.09 cells/mm3 was observed after 6 months of second-line ART in 63 patients. The mean increase in CD4 count (57.16%) after 6 months was statistically significant (P < 0.05) with tenofovir + lamivudine + atazanavir/ritonavir regimen in forty patients.


Irrational practice by private hospitals limits treatment options, with increasing the chances of drug resistance. On the other hand, the National AIDS Control Organization-sponsored second-line ART was found to be effective as 84.12% of patients had improvement in their mean CD4 count.


CD4; efficacy; human immunodeficiency virus; second-line antiretroviral therapy

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