Send to

Choose Destination
Indian J Sex Transm Dis AIDS. 2019 Jan-Jun;40(1):20-24. doi: 10.4103/ijstd.IJSTD_67_17.

A study on hypogonadism in male HIV patients in northeastern part of India.

Author information

Department of General Medicine, Regional Institute of Medical Sciences, Imphal, Manipur, India.
Department of Biochemistry, Regional Institute of Medical Sciences, Imphal, Manipur, India.



After the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (ART), the prevalence of hypogonadism among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected males is decreasing.


The aim of this study was (i) to estimate the prevalence of hypogonadism among HIV-infected males and (ii) to determine the risk factors for hypogonadism.

Settings and Design:

This was a cross-sectional study undertaken at ART center of a medical Institute.

Subjects and Methods:

The study recruited HIV-infected males aged 18-65 years receiving ART. Patients with any debilitating chronic illness, diabetes mellitus, chronic smokers or alcoholic, currently on opioids, or methadone were excluded from the study. Androgen Deficiency in Aging Male (ADAM) questionnaire was used to screen patients for the possible presence of hypogonadism. For those screened positive on ADAM questionnaire underwent biochemical evaluation for serum total testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), and CD4 count.

Statistical Analysis Used:

The Chi-square test was used to compare different parameters. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to assess any relationship between CD4 count, LH, and testosterone. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.


In the study, 426 were initially screened and 120 patients who had probable hypogonadism were further evaluated. The mean age of the patients was 41.61 years. The mean body mass index (BMI) of the patients was 22.47 kg/m2. The mean duration of ART was 6.13 years and the mean CD4 count was 442.63 cells/mm3. Hypogonadism was seen in 20 (23.3%) and majority (85.7%) had secondary hypogonadism. There was significant association between hypogonadism and CD4 count, but no association was found with BMI and duration of ART.


Hypogonadism is seen in 23.3% of HIV-infected males. Majority (85.7%) had secondary hypogonadism. There was significant association of hypogonadism with lower CD4 count.


CD4 count; human immunodeficiency virus; testosterone

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center