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Biomed Res Int. 2019 Apr 22;2019:2785302. doi: 10.1155/2019/2785302. eCollection 2019.

Photobiomodulation by a 635nm Diode Laser on Peri-Implant Bone: Primary and Secondary Stability and Bone Density Analysis-A Randomized Clinical Trial.

Author information

Private Dental Practice, Lipowa 18, Wschowa, Poland.
"Sapienza" University of Rome, Italy.
The Prosthodontic Specialist Training Program, Dental Prosthodontics Clinic, Medical University of Wroclaw, Poland.
Dental Surgery Department, Medical University of Wroclaw, Poland.
Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Sciences, "Sapienza" University of Rome, Italy.



Various procedures in dental implantology are performed to enhance the bone healing process and implant stability. One of these methods can be a low-level laser therapy (LLLT).


The aim of our study was to evaluate the stabilization (primary and secondary) and bone density in peri-implant zone after LLLT protocol using a 635 nm diode laser.

Material and Methods:

The research included 40 implants placed in the posterior region of a mandible in 24 patients (8 women and 16 man; age: 46.7 ± 8.7 years). The patients were randomly divided into 2 groups G1 (n=12, 18 implants) and G2 (n=12, 22 implants) according to the treatment procedure; G1 (test): 635 nm laser, with handpiece diameter: 8mm, output power: 100mW, spot area: 0.5024cm2, average power density: 199.04mW/cm2, continuous mode, dose: 4J per point (8J/cm2), time: 40 sec per point, 2 points (irradiation on a buccal and a lingual side of the alveolus/implant), and total energy per session 8J; G2 (control): no laser irradiation. The G1 (test) group's implants were irradiated according to the following protocol: 1 day before surgery, immediately after the surgery and 2, 4, 7, and 14 days after. The total energy after all therapeutic sessions was 48J. The implants stability was measured employing a Periotest device (Periotest Test Value: PTV) (measured immediately after the surgery, 7 days, 2 weeks, 4 weeks, and 2 and 3 months after the surgery) and the bone density using cone-beam computed tomography (grayscale value) (measured immediately after the surgery, 4 weeks and 12 weeks after the treatment).


The average implant stability at different time points showed lower PTV value (higher stability) at 2nd and 4th week after 635 nm laser irradiation (G1) compared with a control (G2) group (p<0.01). The secondary stability of the implants after 12 weeks observation was not significantly higher for the laser group in contrast to none-irradiated implants (p>0.05). The mean grayscale value at the apical, middle, and cervical level of the titanium implants showed the reduction of pixel grayscale value after 2 weeks and was lower for the G1 group in contrast to the G2 group (p<0.01). The value of grayscale after 12 weeks was significantly higher at the middle and apical level of the implants in the G1group in contrast to the G2 group (p<0.01).


The application of the 635 nm diode laser enhanced secondary implant stability and bone density. However, to assess the impact of the LLLT on peri-implant bone with different bone densities, further well-controlled long-term trials on larger study groups are needed.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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