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J Biol Chem. 2019 May 29. pii: jbc.RA118.006935. doi: 10.1074/jbc.RA118.006935. [Epub ahead of print]

Protein kinase D and Gβγ mediate sustained nociceptive signaling by biased agonists of protease-activated receptor-2.

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Monash University, Australia.
Columbia University, United States.
Queen's University.
Surgery, Columbia University, United States.
Queen's University, Canada.
New York University, United States.
Departments of Surgery and Pharmacology, Columbia University, United States.


Proteases sustain hyperexcitability and pain by cleaving protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR2) on nociceptors through distinct mechanisms. Whereas trypsin induces PAR2 coupling to Gαq, Gαs, and β-arrestins, cathepsin-S (CS) and neutrophil elastase (NE) cleave PAR2 at distinct sites and activate it by biased mechanisms that induce coupling to Gαs, but not to Gαq or β-arrestins. Since proteases activate PAR2 by irreversible cleavage, and activated PAR2 is degraded in lysosomes, sustained extracellular protease-mediated signaling requires mobilization of intact PAR2 from the Golgi apparatus or de novo synthesis of new receptors by incompletely understood mechanisms. We found here that trypsin, CS, and NE stimulate PAR2-dependent activation of protein kinase D (PKD) in the Golgi of HEK293 cells, in which PKD regulates protein trafficking. The proteases stimulated translocation of the PKD activator Gβγ to the Golgi, coinciding with PAR2 mobilization from the Golgi. Proteases also induced translocation of a photo-converted PAR2-Kaede fusion protein from the Golgi to the plasma membrane of KNRK cells. After incubation of HEK293 cells and dorsal root ganglia neurons with CS, NE, or trypsin, PAR2 responsiveness initially declined, consistent with PAR2 cleavage and desensitization, and then gradually recovered. Inhibitors of PKD, Gβγ and protein translation inhibited recovery of PAR2 responsiveness. PKD and Gβγ inhibitors also attenuated protease-evoked mechanical allodynia in mice. We conclude that proteases that activate PAR2 by canonical and biased mechanisms stimulate PKD in the Golgi; PAR2 mobilization and de novo synthesis repopulate the cell surface with intact receptors and sustain nociceptive signaling by extracellular proteases.


F2R-like trypsin receptor; G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR); Golgi; nociception; pain; protease; protein kinase D (PKD); proteinase-activated receptor-2; signal transduction; trafficking

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