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Plant Physiol. 2019 Aug;180(4):1848-1859. doi: 10.1104/pp.19.00481. Epub 2019 May 28.

Triazine Probes Target Ascorbate Peroxidases in Plants.

Author information

1
Plant Chemetics Laboratory, Department of Plant Sciences, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3RB, United Kingdom.
2
Department of Chemistry, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts 02467.
3
Chemistry Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3TA, United Kingdom.
4
Department of Biochemistry, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3QU, United Kingdom.
5
Zentrum für Medizinische Biotechnologie, Chemical Biology, Faculty of Biology, University of Duisburg-Essen, 45117 Essen, Germany.
6
Laboratory of Plant Molecular Physiology, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8657, Japan.
7
Plant Chemetics Laboratory, Department of Plant Sciences, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3RB, United Kingdom renier.vanderhoorn@plants.ox.ac.uk.

Abstract

Though they are rare in nature, anthropogenic 1,3,5-triazines have been used in herbicides as chemically stable scaffolds. Here, we show that small 1,3,5-triazines selectively target ascorbate peroxidases (APXs) in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), rice (Oryza sativa), maize (Zea mays), liverwort (Marchantia polymorpha), and other plant species. The alkyne-tagged 2-chloro-4-methyl-1,3,5-triazine probe KSC-3 selectively binds APX enzymes, both in crude extracts and in living cells. KSC-3 blocks APX activity, thereby reducing photosynthetic activity under moderate light stress, even in apx1 mutant plants. This suggests that APX enzymes in addition to APX1 protect the photosystem against reactive oxygen species. Profiling APX1 with KCS-3 revealed that the catabolic products of atrazine (a 1,3,5-triazine herbicide), which are common soil pollutants, also target APX1. Thus, KSC-3 is a powerful chemical probe to study APX enzymes in the plant kingdom.

PMID:
31138623
PMCID:
PMC6670103
[Available on 2020-08-01]
DOI:
10.1104/pp.19.00481

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