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Educ Health (Abingdon). 2018 Sep-Dec;31(3):168-173. doi: 10.4103/efh.EfH_366_13.

A community-based strategy in medical education of the university of the philippines manila-school of health sciences - Lessons from innovations in human resources for health development in a developing country.

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Medical Department, School of Health Sciences, University of the Philippines, Manila, Philippines.



After nearly four decades of testing an innovative model for training health workers for marginalized communities, the evidence base for the impact of University of the Philippines Manila-School of Health Sciences (UPM-SHS) medical program needs to address important gaps. Has it succeeded in contributing toward socially accountable medical education where medical schools will be evaluated in terms of their contribution to society's health outcomes? To answer this question, this study examined human resources for health (HRH) inequity in the Philippines and reviewed the medical school's performance in terms of addressing HRH distribution.


The evaluation of the school's performance was done through two phases. Phase 1 involved generating HRH inequity metrics for the Philippines through secondary data. Phase 2 involved gathering primary data and generating performance metrics for UPM-SHS.


We found challenges that UPM-SHS needs to address based on the analysis of its student admissions from 1976 to 2011: targeting the right underserved communities, especially at the municipal level; addressing issues of high leakage and undercoverage rates in the program; ensuring mechanisms for return service are in place at the community level; and tracking and measuring program outputs and impact on community health outcomes.


Given this study on the performance of UPM-SHS to produce a broad range of health workforce to address the needs of marginalized communities in the Philippines and in similarly situated countries, there is a need to reassess its HRH development strategy. If it wants to build a critical mass of transformational health leaders to meet the needs of poor communities as part of its social accountability mandate, it needs to accelerate this development process.


Health human resource; health inequity; medical education; social accountability

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