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Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk. 2019 Aug;19(8):488-496.e6. doi: 10.1016/j.clml.2019.04.014. Epub 2019 May 2.

Geriatric Assessment and Frailty Scores Predict Mortality in Myeloma: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

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Division of Public Health Sciences, Department of Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO.
Department of Medicine, Saint Peter's University Hospital, New Brunswick, NJ.
Juravinski Cancer Centre, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.
Bernard Becker Medical Library, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO.
Division of Medical Oncology, Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO. Electronic address:


The incidence of multiple myeloma is increasing as the proportion of older adults is growing rapidly. A critical evaluation of the evidence available is needed to guide the management of older patients with myeloma. A systematic review was conducted to report the prognostic value of geriatric assessment and frailty scores in older patients with multiple myeloma. We conducted a literature search in February and August 2018. Two researchers extracted the data and assessed the quality of the studies. Geriatric assessment and frailty scores were defined as those evaluating at least 2 geriatric domains. Main outcomes were mortality or toxicity. We estimated the pooled hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using a random-effects model. We screened titles and abstracts of 1672 citations for eligibility. Seven studies were included in the qualitative analysis, of which 3 were included in the meta-analysis. Two studies reported similar risks of hematologic adverse events in intermediate-fit and in frail patients compared to frail, but a significantly increased risk of nonhematologic adverse events in frail patients compared to fit patients. In meta-analysis, a significantly increased HR for death was observed in patients with activity of daily living score ≤ 4 (pooled HR = 1.576; 95% CI, 1.051-2.102; χ2 = 0.87; P = .647; I2 = 0). Patients classified as frail showed higher risk of death than fit patients (pooled HR = 2.169; 95% CI, 1.002-2.336; χ2 = 3.02; P = .221; I2 = 33.7%). GA and frailty score are effective in predicting mortality in older adults with myeloma.


Elderly; Frailty models; Multiple myeloma; Older adults; Survival; Toxicity


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