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Small. 2019 May 27:e1901466. doi: 10.1002/smll.201901466. [Epub ahead of print]

Strategically Constructed Bilayer Tin (IV) Oxide as Electron Transport Layer Boosts Performance and Reduces Hysteresis in Perovskite Solar Cells.

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CSIRO Energy, Newcastle Energy Centre, 10 Murray Dwyer Cct, Mayfield West, NSW, 2304, Australia.
Center for Fuel Cell Innovation, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science & Technology, Wuhan, 430074, China.
School of Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Science and Engineering Faculty, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, QLD, 4000, Australia.
CSIRO Energy Clayton Laboratories, Clayton, Vic, 3168, Australia.
CSIRO Energy, 11 Julius Avenue, North Ryde, 2113, Australia.


Nanostructured tin (IV) oxide (SnO2 ) is emerging as an ideal inorganic electron transport layer in n-i-p perovskite devices, due to superior electronic and low-temperature processing properties. However, significant differences in current-voltage performance and hysteresis phenomena arise as a result of the chosen fabrication technique. This indicates enormous scope to optimize the electron transport layer (ETL), however, to date the understanding of the origin of these phenomena is lacking. Reported here is a first comparison of two common SnO2 ETLs with contrasting performance and hysteresis phenomena, with an experimental strategy to combine the beneficial properties in a bilayer ETL architecture. In doing so, this is demonstrated to eliminate room-temperature hysteresis while simultaneously attaining impressive power conversion efficiency (PCE) greater than 20%. This approach highlights a new way to design custom ETLs using functional thin-film coatings of nanomaterials with optimized characteristics for stable, efficient, perovskite solar cells.


bilayer SnO2; energy-level alignment; hysteresis; perovskite solar cells


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