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Endocr J. 2019 May 25. doi: 10.1507/endocrj.EJ19-0053. [Epub ahead of print]

Annual change in plasma xanthine oxidoreductase activity is associated with changes in liver enzymes and body weight.

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Department of Cardiovascular, Renal and Metabolic Medicine, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, Sapporo, Japan.
Department of Public Health, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, Sapporo, Japan.
Sanwa Kagaku Kenkyusho Co., Ltd., Inabe, Mie, Japan.
Department of Nursing, Division of Medical and Behavioral Subjects, Sapporo Medical University School of Health Sciences, Sapporo, Japan.
Japan Health Care College, Sapporo, Japan.


Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR), an enzyme of uric acid formation from hypoxanthine and xanthine, is recognized as a source of oxidative stress. Plasma activity of XOR has been reported to be a biomarker of metabolic disorders associated with obesity, liver dysfunction, insulin resistance, hyperuricemia and adipokines. We investigated longitudinal change in plasma XOR activity, which was determined by using mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography to detect [13C2, 15N2]-uric acid using [13C2, 15N2]-xanthine as a substrate, in 511 subjects (male/female: 244/267) of the Tanno-Sobetsu Study in the years 2016 and 2017. Plasma XOR activity in a basal state was significantly higher in men than in women, but no significant sex difference was observed in annual change in plasma XOR activity. Annual change in plasma activity of XOR was positively correlated with changes in each parameter, including body weight (r = 0.203, p < 0.001), body mass index, diastolic blood pressure, aspartate transaminase (AST) (r = 0.772, p < 0.001), alanine transaminase (r = 0.647, p < 0.001), γ-glutamyl transpeptidase, total cholesterol, triglycerides, uric acid, fasting glucose and HbA1c. Multivariate regression analysis demonstrated that change in AST and that in body weight were independent predictors of change in plasma XOR activity after adjustment of age, sex and changes in each variable with a significant correlation without multicollinearity. In conclusion, annual change in plasma XOR activity is independently associated with changes in liver enzymes and body weight in a general population. Improvement of liver function and reduction of body weight would decrease plasma XOR activity and its related oxidative stress as a therapeutic strategy.


Liver dysfunction; Obesity; Uric acid; Xanthine dehydrogenase; Xanthine oxidase

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