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Sci Total Environ. 2019 Sep 15;683:109-115. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.05.132. Epub 2019 May 11.

Phthalates in infant cotton clothing: Occurrence and implications for human exposure.

Author information

1
International Joint Research Center for Persistent Toxic Substances (IJRC-PTS)/International Joint Research Center for Arctic Environment and Ecosystem (IJRC-AEE), State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, and School of Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090, PR China; University Corporation for Polar Research, Beijing 100875, PR China.
2
International Joint Research Center for Persistent Toxic Substances (IJRC-PTS)/International Joint Research Center for Arctic Environment and Ecosystem (IJRC-AEE), State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, and School of Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090, PR China; University Corporation for Polar Research, Beijing 100875, PR China. Electronic address: llyan7664@163.com.
3
International Joint Research Center for Persistent Toxic Substances (IJRC-PTS), College of Agricultural Resource and Environment, Heilongjiang University, Harbin 150080, PR China.
4
International Joint Research Center for Persistent Toxic Substances (IJRC-PTS)/International Joint Research Center for Arctic Environment and Ecosystem (IJRC-AEE), State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, and School of Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090, PR China; University Corporation for Polar Research, Beijing 100875, PR China; IJRC-PTS-NA & IJRC-AEE-NA, Toronto, Ontario M2N 6X9, Canada.

Abstract

Clothing easily adsorbed the chemicals in the environment, and became a source of human exposure to chemicals. However, large contacted surface area and long exposure duration have elevated human exposure to chemicals from clothing, such as phthalates. Among them, cotton clothing, which infants prefer to wear, has been proven to adsorb phthalates more easily than other fabrics. While infants are developing, they are easily affected by phthalates. In this study, in order to study accumulation of phthalates in infant cotton clothing during the whole process from production to the first wearing, 24 infant cotton clothing samples were collected from shopping malls in Harbin, China. High detection rates and concentrations suggest that phthalates in the environment are widely adsorbed to infant cotton clothing, and traditional laundering for infant clothing cannot remove phthalates completely. The median concentration of the total phthalates was 4.15 μg/g. Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) has become the dominant phthalate. For the estimated daily intakes (EDIs) for infants, dibutyl phthalate (DBP) had the highest contribution, followed by di-iso-butyl phthalate (DiBP) and DEHP. Dermal absorption has become the main route of infant exposure to phthalates, and ingestion contributed very little. The result of comparing with the EDIs via dermal absorption from house air and dust suggests that clothing plays an important role of dermal absorption exposure to phthalates. For risk assessment, the carcinogenic risk of BBP and DEHP indicates that the level of DEHP in infant cotton clothing might pose potential adverse effects to infant health.

KEYWORDS:

Cotton clothing; Estimated daily intakes; Infants; Phthalates; Risk assessment

PMID:
31129321
DOI:
10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.05.132
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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