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Neurobiol Dis. 2019 Oct;130:104483. doi: 10.1016/j.nbd.2019.104483. Epub 2019 May 24.

The use of iPSC technology for modeling Autism Spectrum Disorders.

Author information

1
Department of Microbiology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of São Paulo, SP, Brazil.
2
Department of Microbiology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of São Paulo, SP, Brazil; Department of Obstetrics, School of Arts Sciences and Humanities, São Paulo, SP 03828-000, Brazil. Electronic address: patriciacbbbraga@usp.br.

Abstract

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) are a group of neurodevelopmental disorders that influence social skills, involving communication, interaction, and behavior, usually with repetitive and restrictive manners. Due to the variety of genes involved in ASDs and several possible environmental factors influence, there is still no answer to what really causes syndromic and non-syndromic types of ASDs, usually affecting each individual in a unique way. However, we know that the mechanism underlying ASDs involves brain functioning. The human brain is a complex structure composed of close to 100 billion cells, which is a big challenge to study counting just with post mortem tissue investigation or genetic approaches. Therefore, human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) technology has been used as a tool to produce viable cells for understanding a working brain. Taking advantage of patient-derived stem cells, researchers are now able to generate neurons, glial cells and brain organoids in vitro to model ASDs. In this review we report data from different studies showing how iPSCs have been a critical tool to study the different phenotypes of ASDs.

KEYWORDS:

Autism Spectrum Disorders; Brain cells; Brain organoid; Disease modeling; Stem cells; iPSC

PMID:
31129084
DOI:
10.1016/j.nbd.2019.104483

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