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Immunity. 2019 Jun 18;50(6):1425-1438.e5. doi: 10.1016/j.immuni.2019.04.019. Epub 2019 May 22.

Tissue-Resident Group 2 Innate Lymphoid Cells Differentiate by Layered Ontogeny and In Situ Perinatal Priming.

Author information

1
Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA.
2
Department of Dermatology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA.
3
Department of Anatomy, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA.
4
Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA; Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA. Electronic address: richard.locksley@ucsf.edu.

Abstract

The perinatal period is a critical window for distribution of innate tissue-resident immune cells within developing organs. Despite epidemiologic evidence implicating the early-life environment in the risk for allergy, temporally controlled lineage tracing of group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) during this period remains unstudied. Using complementary fate-mapping approaches and reporters for ILC2 activation, we show that ILC2s appeared in multiple organs during late gestation like tissue macrophages, but, unlike the latter, a majority of peripheral ILC2 pools were generated de novo during the postnatal window. This period was accompanied by systemic ILC2 priming and acquisition of tissue-specific transcriptomes. Although perinatal ILC2s were variably replaced across tissues with age, the dramatic increases in tissue ILC2s following helminth infection were mediated through local expansion independent of de novo generation by bone marrow hematopoiesis. We provide comprehensive temporally controlled fate mapping of an innate lymphocyte subset with notable nuances as compared to tissue macrophage ontogeny.

KEYWORDS:

IL-5; ILC2s; Id2; allergy; arginase-1; fate mapping; ontogeny; type 2 cytokines

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