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Arch Oral Biol. 2019 Jul;103:40-46. doi: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2019.05.012. Epub 2019 May 15.

BMP4 mutations in tooth agenesis and low bone mass.

Author information

1
Department of Prosthodontics, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases, National Engineering Laboratory for Digital and Material Technology of Stomatology, Beijing Key Laboratory of Digital Stomatology, China.
2
Department of Internal Medicine, Sanford Medical School, University of South Dakota, Sioux Falls, SD, 57105, USA.
3
Department of Prosthodontics, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases, National Engineering Laboratory for Digital and Material Technology of Stomatology, Beijing Key Laboratory of Digital Stomatology, China. Electronic address: pkussliuyang@bjmu.edu.cn.
4
Department of Prosthodontics, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases, National Engineering Laboratory for Digital and Material Technology of Stomatology, Beijing Key Laboratory of Digital Stomatology, China. Electronic address: donghan@bjmu.edu.cn.
5
Department of Periodontology, Adams School of Dentistry, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, 27599, USA. Electronic address: singwai@live.unc.edu.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To identify an uncommon genetic cause of tooth agenesis (TA) by utilizing whole exome sequencing (WES) and targeted Sanger sequencing in a cohort of 120 patients with isolated TA.

DESIGN:

One deleterious mutation in the gene encoding bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) was identified in 6 unrelated patients with TA by WES. After that, the coding exons of BMP4 were examined in 114 TA patients using Sanger sequencing. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) was used to measure the bone mineral density of patients who carried a BMP4 mutation. Finally, preliminary functional studies of two BMP4 mutants were performed.

RESULTS:

We detected 3 novel missense mutations (c.58 G > A: p.Gly20Ser, c.326 G > T: p.Arg109Leu and c.614 T > C: p.Val205Ala) and 1 reported mutation in the BMP4 gene among 120 TA probands. The previously reported BMP4 mutation (c.751C > T: p.His251Tyr) was associated with urethra and eye anomalies. By extending the pedigrees, we determined that the tooth phenotypes had an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern, as individuals carrying a BMP4 mutation exhibit different types of dental anomalies. Interestingly, we observed that patients harboring a BMP4 mutation manifested early onset osteopenia or osteoporosis. Further in vitro functional assays demonstrated that two BMP4 mutants resulted in a decreased activation of Smad signaling. Therefore, a loss-of-function in BMP4 may contribute to the clinical phenotypes seen in this study.

CONCLUSIONS:

We identified 4 mutations in the BMP4 gene in 120 TA patients. To our knowledge, this is the first study to describe human skeletal diseases associated with BMP4 mutations.

KEYWORDS:

BMP4; Dental anomalies; Osteopenia; Osteoporosis; Tooth agenesis

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