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Malar J. 2019 May 24;18(1):181. doi: 10.1186/s12936-019-2812-0.

High Plasmodium infection and multiple insecticide resistance in a major malaria vector Anopheles coluzzii from Sahel of Niger Republic.

Author information

1
Vector Biology Department, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine (LSTM), Pembroke Place, L3 5QA, UK. SulaimanSadi.Ibrahim@lstmed.ac.uk.
2
Department of Biochemistry, Bayero University, PMB 3011, Kano, Nigeria. SulaimanSadi.Ibrahim@lstmed.ac.uk.
3
Department of Biochemistry, Bayero University, PMB 3011, Kano, Nigeria.
4
Vector Biology Department, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine (LSTM), Pembroke Place, L3 5QA, UK.
5
Centre de Recherche Médicale et Sanitaire (CERMES), Institut Pasteur International Network, 634 Bd de la Nation, BP 10887, Niamey, Niger.
6
LSTM Research Unit, Centre for Research in Infectious Diseases (CRID), P.O. Box 13591, Yaoundé, Cameroon.
7
Vector Biology Department, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine (LSTM), Pembroke Place, L3 5QA, UK. Charles.Wondji@lstmed.ac.uk.
8
LSTM Research Unit, Centre for Research in Infectious Diseases (CRID), P.O. Box 13591, Yaoundé, Cameroon. Charles.Wondji@lstmed.ac.uk.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Information on insecticide resistance and the mechanisms driving it in the major malaria vectors is grossly lacking in Niger Republic, thus hindering control efforts. To facilitate evidence-based malaria control, the role of Anopheles coluzzii population from southern Niger, in malaria transmission, its insecticides resistance profile and the molecular mechanisms driving the resistance were characterized.

METHODS:

Blood fed female Anopheles gambiae sensu lato resting indoor were collected at Tessaoua, Niger. Source of blood was established using PCR and infection with Plasmodium determined using TaqMan assay. Resistance profile was established with the major public health insecticides, and resistance intensity determined with deltamethrin. Synergist assays were conducted with piperonyl butoxide and diethyl maleate. Presence of L1014F and L1014S knockdown resistance (kdr) mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC) was investigated using TaqMan genotyping, and strength of selection pressure acting on the Anopheles populations determined by assessing the genetic diversity of a fragment spanning exon-20 of the VGSC from alive and dead females.

RESULTS:

High human blood index (96%) and high Plasmodium falciparum infection (~ 13%) was observed in the An. coluzzii population. Also, a single mosquito was found infected with Plasmodium vivax. High pyrethroid and organochloride resistance was observed with mortalities of less than 20% for deltamethrin, permethrin, α-cypermethrin, and DDT. A high LD50 (156.65 min) was obtained for deltamethrin, with a resistance ratio of ~ 47.18 compared to the susceptible Ngoussou colony. Moderate carbamate resistance was observed, and a full susceptibility to organophosphates recorded. Synergist bioassays with piperonyl butoxide and diethyl maleate significantly recovered deltamethrin and DDT susceptibility, respectively implicating CYP450 s (mortality = 82%, χ2 = 84.51, p < 0.0001) and glutathione S-transferases (mortality = 58%, χ2 = 33.96, p < 0.001) in resistance. A high frequency of 1014F kdr mutation (82%) was established, with significant difference in genotype distribution associated with permethrin resistance [odds ratio = 7.71 (95% CI 2.43-14.53, χ2 = 13.67, p = 0.001]. Sequencing of intron-1 of the voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC) revealed a low genetic diversity.

CONCLUSION:

High pyrethroid resistance highlight the challenges to the effectiveness of the pyrethroids-based ITNs and indoor residual spraying (IRS) against An. coluzzii in Niger. The pyrethroids-synergists LLINs and organophosphate-based IRS maybe the alternatives for malaria control in southern Niger.

KEYWORDS:

An. coluzzii; Insecticides; Malaria; Metabolic; Plasmodium falciparum; Resistance; Sahel; kdr

PMID:
31126311
PMCID:
PMC6534846
DOI:
10.1186/s12936-019-2812-0
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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