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Nanomaterials (Basel). 2019 May 23;9(5). pii: E793. doi: 10.3390/nano9050793.

Nano Hard Carbon Anodes for Sodium-Ion Batteries.

Author information

1
Division of Marine Engineering, Korea Maritime and Ocean University, 727 Taejong-ro, Yeongdo-gu, Busan 49112, Korea. smap1211@kmou.ac.kr.
2
Korea Maritime Equipment Research Institute/ICT Convergence Team, 435 Haeyang-ro, Yeongdo-gu, Busan 49111, Korea. kdh9942@komeri.re.kr.
3
Korea Maritime Equipment Research Institute/ICT Convergence Team, 435 Haeyang-ro, Yeongdo-gu, Busan 49111, Korea. shkim@komeri.re.kr.
4
Department of Ocean Advanced Materials Convergence Engineering, Korea Maritime and Ocean University, 727 Taejong-ro, Yeongdo-gu, Busan 49112, Korea. elee@kmou.ac.kr.
5
Division of Marine Information Technology, Korea Maritime and Ocean University, 727 Taejong-ro, Yeongdo-gu, Busan 49112, Korea. skpark@kmou.ac.kr.
6
Division of Marine Information Technology, Korea Maritime and Ocean University, 727 Taejong-ro, Yeongdo-gu, Busan 49112, Korea. woongsengine@kmou.ac.kr.
7
Division of Marine System Engineering, Korea Maritime and Ocean University, 727 Taejong-ro, Yeongdo-gu, Busan 49112, Korea. ysyun@kmou.ac.kr.
8
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, POSTECH, 77 Cheongam-ro, Pohang 37673, Korea. youngchoi@postech.ac.kr.
9
Division of Marine Engineering, Korea Maritime and Ocean University, 727 Taejong-ro, Yeongdo-gu, Busan 49112, Korea. junkang@kmou.ac.kr.

Abstract

A hindrance to the practical use of sodium-ion batteries is the lack of adequate anode materials. By utilizing the co-intercalation reaction, graphite, which is the most common anode material of lithium-ion batteries, was used for storing sodium ion. However, its performance, such as reversible capacity and coulombic efficiency, remains unsatisfactory for practical needs. Therefore, to overcome these drawbacks, a new carbon material was synthesized so that co-intercalation could occur efficiently. This carbon material has the same morphology as carbon black; that is, it has a wide pathway due to a turbostratic structure, and a short pathway due to small primary particles that allows the co-intercalation reaction to occur efficiently. Additionally, due to the numerous voids present in the inner amorphous structure, the sodium storage capacity was greatly increased. Furthermore, owing to the coarse co-intercalation reaction due to the surface pore structure, the formation of solid-electrolyte interphase was greatly suppressed and the first cycle coulombic efficiency reached 80%. This study shows that the carbon material alone can be used to design good electrode materials for sodium-ion batteries without the use of next-generation materials.

KEYWORDS:

co-intercalation reaction; nano hard carbon; sodium-ion battery; solid-electrolyte interphase; turbostratic structure

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