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Indian J Ophthalmol. 2019 Jun;67(6):772-783. doi: 10.4103/ijo.IJO_449_19.

Coats disease in 351 eyes: Analysis of features and outcomes over 45 years (by decade) at a single center.

Author information

1
Ocular Oncology Service, Wills Eye Hospital, Thomas Jefferson University, 840 Walnut Street, 14th Floor, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
2
Ocular Oncology Service, Wills Eye Hospital, Thomas Jefferson University, 840 Walnut Street, 14th Floor, Philadelphia, PA; Department of Ophthalmology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, 55905, USA.

Abstract

Purpose:

To assess features and outcomes of Coats disease over 5-decades.

Methods:

Retrospective review of Coats disease patients at a single center. Features and outcomes were compared based on decade of presentation.

Results:

There were 351 patients with Coats disease. The presenting median age (6 years), male sex (84%), and unilaterality (100%) did not change per decade. Coats disease classification did not change per decade with Stage 1 (1%), Stage 2 (21%), Stage 3 (68%), Stage 4 (6%), and Stage 5 (1%). Clinical features that changed per decade (1970s vs. 1980s vs. 1990s vs. 2000s vs. 2010s) included 1980s features of more eyes with exudation in all 4 quadrants (22% vs. 58% vs. 44% vs. 33% vs. 27, P = 0.01) and total exudative retinal detachment (33% vs. 53% vs. 39% vs. 27% vs. 21%, P < 0.001). Imaging features that changed per decade included 2010s greater fluorescein angiographic extent of retinal non-perfusion in mean clock hours (4 vs. 4 vs. 3 vs. 5 vs. 6, P = 0.003), and 1980s greater mean height of retinal detachment ultrasonographically (5 vs. 12 vs. 5 vs. 5 vs. 4 mm, P < 0.001). Treatment features that changed per decade included 1980s greater primary enucleation (11% vs. 16% vs. 3% vs. 4% vs. 1%, P = 0.001), and 2010s greater use of laser photocoagulation (55% vs. 33% vs. 38% vs. 40% vs. 72%, P < 0.001), sub-Tenon corticosteroid (0% vs. 4% vs. 5% vs. 8% vs. 29%, P < 0.001), and intravitreal anti-VEGF) (0% vs. 4% vs. 2% vs. 13% vs. 18%, P = 0.003). Outcomes that changed per decade included 2010s findings of more complete resolution of subretinal fluid (64% vs. 59% vs. 38% vs. 58% vs. 72%, P = 0.01) and less need for primary/secondary enucleation (17% vs. 27% vs. 14% vs. 13% vs. 6%, P = 0.04).

Conclusion:

Eyes with Coats disease in the 1980s demonstrated more advanced findings, often requiring enucleation. Over the decades, greater use of laser photocoagulation and injections has led to improved disease resolution with greater globe salvage.

KEYWORDS:

Coats disease; cryotherapy; enucleation; exudation; eye; laser photocoagulation; retina; surgery; telangiectasia

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