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PLoS One. 2019 May 23;14(5):e0217428. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0217428. eCollection 2019.

Comparative study on the efficacy of sodium hypochlorite, aqueous ozone, and peracetic acid in the elimination of Salmonella from cattle manure contaminated various surfaces supported by Bayesian analysis.

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Department of Veterinary Clinical Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois, United States of America.
Department of Animal Medicine, Internal Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Benha University, Moshtohor-Toukh, Kalyobiya, Egypt.


Providing the dairy industry with an effective and safe disinfectant is considered a key step in improving the farm hygiene and biosecurity. Salmonella infection via foodborne transmission remains a major public health threat. The main objective of this study was therefore to characterize and compare the decontamination power of NaOCl, aqueous-O3, and PAA against cattle manure based-Salmonella heavily contaminated various surfaces (plastic, nylon, rubber, and wood) using Bayesian analysis. In a crossover design, 14 strips of each material were randomly assigned between 3 groups, treatment (n = 6), positive-control (contaminated with feces-Salmonella mixture, but not exposed to disinfectants, n = 6), and negative control (laboratory blank, inoculated only with sterile water, n = 2). The strips were soaked in cattle manure inoculated with 107-108 of Salmonella Typhimurium-Choleraesuis (aSTC) and exposed to 50 mL of 200 ppm NaOCl, 9 ppm aqueous-O3, or 400 ppm PAA for 4 minutes. Bayesian methods were used for analysis. On plastic and nylon surfaces, NaOCl, aqueous-O3, or PAA reduce aSTC population to a safe level (>5.0-log10) within 4 minutes. On rubber surface, PAA and aqueous-O3 can produce a reduction in aSTC population 50% and 30% higher than NaOCl with posterior probabilities of 97% and 90%, respectively. However, PAA can produce reduction factor on wood surface 40% higher than aqueous-O3 and NaOCl with posterior probabilities of 97% and 73%, respectively. We conclude that smooth surfaces were most effectively decontaminated. Peracetic acid of 400 ppm can provide an effective means for controlling Salmonella population heavily contaminated various surfaces in dairy operations. However, the safe residues and strong reactivity makes aqueous-O3 and PAA attractive alternative disinfectants for improving farm hygiene and biosecurity.

Conflict of interest statement

Partial funding for this project was provided by Origin, Inc. Princeton, NJ, USA - though a technical testing agreement with the Board of Trustees of the University of Illinois. Origin Inc. provided the proprietary technology to generate and deliver ozone gas in a prototype system that was used in the study. Origin Inc. does not have a commercially available ozone system at the time of preparation of this manuscript. The authors have no ownership or financial ties to Origin Inc. In addition, the authors have no financial interest in any commercial products that Origin Inc. may develop. This does not alter our adherence to PLOS ONE policies on sharing data and materials.

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