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Nature. 2019 May;569(7757):546-550. doi: 10.1038/s41586-019-1193-4. Epub 2019 May 22.

Increase in CFC-11 emissions from eastern China based on atmospheric observations.

Author information

School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.
Department of Oceanography, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, South Korea.
National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Japan.
Hadley Centre, Met Office, Exeter, UK.
Center for Global Change Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA.
Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Dübendorf, Switzerland.
Global Monitoring Division, Earth System Research Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder, CO, USA.
Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, USA.
Climate Science Centre, CSIRO Oceans and Atmosphere, Aspendale, Victoria, Australia.
School of Geographical Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.
Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA.
Department of Oceanography, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, South Korea.
Kyungpook Institute of Oceanography, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, South Korea.
NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, USA.
School of GeoSciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.


The recovery of the stratospheric ozone layer relies on the continued decline in the atmospheric concentrations of ozone-depleting gases such as chlorofluorocarbons1. The atmospheric concentration of trichlorofluoromethane (CFC-11), the second-most abundant chlorofluorocarbon, has declined substantially since the mid-1990s2. A recently reported slowdown in the decline of the atmospheric concentration of CFC-11 after 2012, however, suggests that global emissions have increased3,4. A concurrent increase in CFC-11 emissions from eastern Asia contributes to the global emission increase, but the location and magnitude of this regional source are unknown3. Here, using high-frequency atmospheric observations from Gosan, South Korea, and Hateruma, Japan, together with global monitoring data and atmospheric chemical transport model simulations, we investigate regional CFC-11 emissions from eastern Asia. We show that emissions from eastern mainland China are 7.0 ± 3.0 (±1 standard deviation) gigagrams per year higher in 2014-2017 than in 2008-2012, and that the increase in emissions arises primarily around the northeastern provinces of Shandong and Hebei. This increase accounts for a substantial fraction (at least 40 to 60 per cent) of the global rise in CFC-11 emissions. We find no evidence for a significant increase in CFC-11 emissions from any other eastern Asian countries or other regions of the world where there are available data for the detection of regional emissions. The attribution of any remaining fraction of the global CFC-11 emission rise to other regions is limited by the sparsity of long-term measurements of sufficient frequency near potentially emissive regions. Several considerations suggest that the increase in CFC-11 emissions from eastern mainland China is likely to be the result of new production and use, which is inconsistent with the Montreal Protocol agreement to phase out global chlorofluorocarbon production by 2010.


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