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ACS Nano. 2019 Jun 25;13(6):6431-6437. doi: 10.1021/acsnano.8b09301. Epub 2019 May 22.

Direct/Alternating Current Electrochemical Method for Removing and Recovering Heavy Metal from Water Using Graphene Oxide Electrode.

Author information

1
Department of Materials Science and Engineering , Stanford University , Stanford , California 94305 , United States.
2
Stanford Institute for Materials and Energy Sciences , SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory , 2575 Sand Hill Road , Menlo Park , California 94025 , United States.

Abstract

Treatment of heavy-metal pollution in both point-of-use water and industrial wastewater is critical in protecting human health and the environment. Current methods for heavy-metal treatment in both sources have limitations. For point-of-use water, current methods usually suffer from limited capacity and difficulties in spontaneously removing multiple heavy metals. For industrial wastewater, current methods greatly reduce the value of heavy metal by precipitating them as sludge which requires further treatment. Here we developed an electrochemical method that can treat both low-concentration and high-concentration heavy-metal pollution using either direct current (DC) or alternating current (AC) electrodeposition with graphene-oxide-modified carbon felt electrode (CF-GO). The graphene oxide provides a high density of surface functional groups to assist the electrodeposition. The electrodeposition method showed 2 orders of magnitude higher capacity (>29 g heavy metal for 1 g of graphene oxide) compared with traditional adsorption methods. For low levels of heavy-metal pollution in point-of-use water, DC electrodeposition with a CF-GO electrode can reduce single heavy-metal ion pollution (Cu, Cd, and Pb) as well as multiple ion mixtures to below safe water drinking levels. This method can tolerate a much wider range of heavy-metal pollution in point-of-use water than traditional adsorption methods. For high-level pollution in industrial wastewater, AC electrodeposition can recover >99.9% heavy-metal ions. By tuning the AC frequency and voltage, the electrodeposition method can further selectively recover Cu, Cd, and Pb separately, which adds values to the heavy-metal removal process.

KEYWORDS:

electrochemistry; graphene oxide; heavy metal; pollution; water

PMID:
31117369
DOI:
10.1021/acsnano.8b09301

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