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J Biol Chem. 2019 Jun 28;294(26):10336-10348. doi: 10.1074/jbc.RA119.008848. Epub 2019 May 20.

Mitochondrially targeted cytochrome P450 2D6 is involved in monomethylamine-induced neuronal damage in mouse models.

Author information

1
From the Department of Biomedical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104.
2
the Department of Pathobiology, MJR-VHUP, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, and.
3
the Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37232.
4
From the Department of Biomedical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, narayan@vet.upenn.edu.

Abstract

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a major human disease associated with degeneration of the central nervous system. Evidence suggests that several endogenously formed 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-mimicking chemicals that are metabolic conversion products, especially β-carbolines and isoquinolines, act as neurotoxins that induce PD or enhance progression of the disease. We have demonstrated previously that mitochondrially targeted human cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6), supported by mitochondrial adrenodoxin and adrenodoxin reductase, can efficiently catalyze the conversion of MPTP to the toxic 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion. In this study, we show that the mitochondrially targeted CYP2D6 can efficiently catalyze MPTP-mimicking compounds, i.e. 2-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline, 2-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-β-carboline, and 9-methyl-norharmon, suspected to induce PD in humans. Our results reveal that activity and respiration in mouse brain mitochondrial complex I are significantly affected by these toxins in WT mice but remain unchanged in Cyp2d6 locus knockout mice, indicating a possible role of CYP2D6 in the metabolism of these compounds both in vivo and in vitro These metabolic effects were minimized in the presence of two CYP2D6 inhibitors, quinidine and ajmalicine. Neuro-2a cells stably expressing predominantly mitochondrially targeted CYP2D6 were more sensitive to toxin-mediated respiratory dysfunction and complex I inhibition than cells expressing predominantly endoplasmic reticulum-targeted CYP2D6. Exposure to these toxins also induced the autophagic marker Parkin and the mitochondrial fission marker Dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) in differentiated neurons expressing mitochondrial CYP2D6. Our results show that monomethylamines are converted to their toxic cationic form by mitochondrially directed CYP2D6 and result in neuronal degradation in mice.

KEYWORDS:

Parkinson's disease; complex I; cytochrome P450; drug metabolism; mitochondria; monomethylamines; neurodegeneration; neurotoxin; substantia nigra; tyrosine hydroxylase

PMID:
31113867
PMCID:
PMC6664168
[Available on 2020-06-28]
DOI:
10.1074/jbc.RA119.008848
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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