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J Oral Maxillofac Pathol. 2019 Jan-Apr;23(1):147-151. doi: 10.4103/jomfp.JOMFP_214_18.

Forensic application of frontal sinus measurement among the Indian population.

Author information

Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, Maratha Mandal's NGH Institute of Dental Sciences and Research Centre, Belgaum, Karnataka, India.
Department of Diagnostic Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry, King Khalid University, Abha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.



Studies have been done in diversified population, demonstrating the uniqueness of frontal sinus; data related to the Indian population are less. Thus, the present study was aimed to determine the frontal sinus measurement and to assess its forensic application in the Indian population.

Materials and Methods:

A total of 400 individuals with Indian origin (21-30 years) were included in the study. The digitized posteroanterior skull radiographs were obtained and was transferred to Adobe® CS4 extended to measure the dimensions of frontal sinus and orbit for 12 parameters.

Statistical Analysis:

A descriptive statistical analysis was performed.


The descriptive statistics showed the presence of bilateral frontal sinus in 87.7% and bilateral absence in 8.0% of the individuals and the absence of left and right frontal sinus in 3.3% and 1%, respectively. Maximum population showed high asymmetry index (64.7%); the right side frontal sinus (height, 59.3% and width, 40.8%) was superior to the left side in both males and females. The partial septa among the Indian population were absent for maximum population (55.2%), and supraorbital cells of the frontal sinuses were present on both sides among the Indian population.


The observation of the present study suggests that the frontal sinus is highly asymmetrical and unique to the individual and hence can be effectively used in personal identification method in forensic anthropology.


Frontal sinus; Indian population; human identification; posteroanterior view; radiograph

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