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J Oral Maxillofac Pathol. 2019 Jan-Apr;23(1):90-96. doi: 10.4103/jomfp.JOMFP_116_18.

Epidemiological profile and clinical characteristics of oral potentially malignant disorders and oral squamous cell carcinoma: A pilot study in Bidar and Gulbarga Districts, Karnataka, India.

Author information

1
Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, Government Dental College and Hospital, Hyderabad, Telangana, India.
2
Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, Pacific Academy of Higher Education and Research University, Pacific University, Udaipur, Rajasthan, India.
3
Department of Periodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, King AbdulAziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
4
Department of Endodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, King AbdulAziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
5
Department of Oral Surgery, King AbdulAziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

Abstract

Background:

Clinical scenarios of oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMDs) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) vary between geographical districts within the same country. This could be attributed to common habits and other cultural factors, such as excessive consumption of tobacco products, leading to higher prevalence of tobacco-related lesions of the oral cavity. A better understanding of their pattern and behavior in each particular region may help in devising strategies for prevention and treatment.

Aims and Objectives:

The aim of the study is to assess the epidemiological profile and clinical characteristics of OPMD and OSCC among population in and around Bidar and Gulbarga districts of Karnataka, India.

Materials and Methods:

This was a retrospective, chart review study in the districts of Bidar and Gulbarga, Karnataka, India. Medical records of patients with clinical and histopathological diagnosis of OPMD or OSCC who attended a private dental school in Bidar and 20 private dental clinics in the districts of Bidar and Gulbarga between 2010 and 2017 were included in the study. Collected data were analyzed using Statistical Package Social Sciences software, version 20.0.

Results:

There were a total of 630 patients, with males representing 69.52% (n = 438; ratio of 2.28:1) of cases and mean age of 42.64 years. 375 (59.52%) patients had a diagnosis of OPMD with the most common subtype of oral submucous fibrosis (185/375; 49.33%) followed by leukoplakia (110/375; 29.33%) and lichen planus (80/375; 21.33%). Buccal mucosa was the most commonly affected site (33.01%). Of 630 patients, 255 (40.48%) had OSCC, with tongue being the most common site (36.86%).

Conclusion:

This study revealed for the first time that OPMD and OSCC are widespread in the districts of Bidar and Gulbarga. The available knowledge on the prevalence of these lesions could help in educating patients and implementing preventive measures by health-care providers to improve overall survival. Long-term follow-up studies are needed to better understand the disease pattern.

KEYWORDS:

Lichen planus; oral potential malignant disorder; oral squamous cell carcinoma; oral submucous fibrosis; prevalence

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