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Genet Med. 2019 Nov;21(11):2422-2430. doi: 10.1038/s41436-019-0548-4. Epub 2019 May 21.

Genomic education for the next generation of health-care providers.

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Department of Genetics, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA.
Department of Family and Preventive Medicine, Division of Physician Assistant Studies, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT, USA.
Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Division of Human Genetics and University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Cincinnati, OH, USA.
Divisions of Human Genetics and Patient Services, Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, USA.
Department of Medicine, Biomedical Genetics Section, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA.


Historically, medical geneticists and genetic counselors have provided the majority of genetic services. Advances in technology, reduction in testing costs, and increased public awareness have led to a growing demand for genetic services in both clinical and direct-to-consumer spaces. Recent and anticipated changes in the workforce of genetic counselors and medical geneticists require a reexamination of the way we educate health-care providers and the means by which we provide access to genetic services. The time is ripe for rapid growth of genetic and genomic services, but to capitalize on these opportunities, we need to consider a variety of educational mechanisms to reach providers both within and beyond the traditional genetic counseling and medical genetics sectors, including nurses, physician assistants, and nongenetics physicians. This article summarizes the educational efforts underway in each of these professions.


genetic services; genetics workforce; genomics education


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