Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Am J Hematol. 2019 Aug;94(8):871-879. doi: 10.1002/ajh.25510. Epub 2019 Jun 12.

Robust clinical and laboratory response to hydroxyurea using pharmacokinetically guided dosing for young children with sickle cell anemia.

Author information

1
Division of Hematology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio.
2
Department of Pediatrics, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, Ohio.
3
Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Abstract

Hydroxyurea is FDA-approved and now increasingly used for children with sickle cell anemia (SCA), but dosing strategies, pharmacokinetic (PK) profiles, and treatment responses for individual patients are highly variable. Typical weight-based dosing with step-wise escalation to maximum tolerated dose (MTD) leads to predictable laboratory and clinical benefits, but often takes 6 to 12 months to achieve. The Therapeutic Response Evaluation and Adherence Trial (TREAT, NCT02286154) was a single-center study designed to prospectively validate a novel personalized PK-guided hydroxyurea dosing strategy with a primary endpoint of time to MTD. Enrolled participants received a single oral 20 mg/kg dose of hydroxyurea, followed by a sparse PK sampling approach with three samples collected over three hours. Analysis of individual PK data into a population PK model generated a starting dose that targets the MTD. The TREAT cohort (n = 50) was young, starting hydroxyurea at a median age of 11 months (IQR 9-26 months), and PK-guided starting doses were high (27.7 ± 4.9 mg/kg/d). Time to MTD was 4.8 months (IQR 3.3-9.3), significantly shorter than comparison studies (p < 0.0001), thus meeting the primary endpoint. More remarkably, the laboratory response for participants starting with a PK-guided dose was quite robust, achieving higher hemoglobin (10.1 ± 1.3 g/dL) and HbF (33.3 ± 9.1%) levels than traditional dosing. Though higher than traditional dosing, PK-guided doses were safe without excess hematologic toxicities. Our data suggest early initiation of hydroxyurea, using a personalized dosing strategy for children with SCA, provides laboratory and clinical response beyond what has been seen historically, with traditional weight-based dosing.

PMID:
31106898
PMCID:
PMC6639795
[Available on 2020-08-01]
DOI:
10.1002/ajh.25510

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Wiley
Loading ...
Support Center