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Am J Transl Res. 2019 Apr 15;11(4):2550-2569. eCollection 2019.

Targeting prostate cancer cell proliferation, stemness and metastatic potential using Costus speciosus derived phytochemicals.

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Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University Alexandria, Egypt.
Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Sciences, King Abdulaziz University Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.


Prostate cancer is still at the forefront causes of cancer-related morbidity and mortality in men throughout the globe. The disease is initiated and fostered by a subset of cancer stem cells (CSCs). Costus speciosus is an oriental herb used in traditional medicine and is a source of bioactive compounds with known pharmacological activities. The present study aims to evaluate the anticancer property of varied extracts isolated from C. speciosus against the human prostate cancer PC-3 cells. Extracts derived from C. speciosus were analyzed by chromatography-mass spectrometry and their effects on the proliferation, migration, invasion, apoptosis and cell cycle distribution of PC-3 cells were investigated. Results showed that crude hexane extract of C. speciosus (CHECS) inhibited proliferation, clonogenic and metastatic potential of PC-3 cells. It induced apoptosis in PC-3 cells associated with generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), reduction of GSH and permeabilization of mitochondrial and lysosomal membranes, induction of caspase-9/-3 activity and PARP-1 cleavage, DNA damage and an increase in ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 proteins. CHECS induced G0/G1 and G2/M arrest in PC-3 cells and targeted PC-3 prostaspheres. These findings indicate that phytochemicals of CHECS exhibit potential for natural therapeutic product development for prostate cancer.


Phytomedicine; apoptosis; cell cycle; metastasis; oxidative stress; stem cells


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