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J Sex Med. 2019 Jul;16(7):1005-1017. doi: 10.1016/j.jsxm.2019.04.004. Epub 2019 May 16.

Erectile Dysfunction Predicts Cardiovascular Events as an Independent Risk Factor: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Author information

1
Department of Thoracic Surgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, China; Departments of Neurosurgery, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.
2
Department of Urology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, China.
3
Department of Thoracic Surgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, China.
4
Department of Thoracic Surgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, China. Electronic address: zwx123dr@126.com.

Abstract

INTRODUCTION:

Previous studies demonstrating that erectile dysfunction (ED) predicts the risk of further cardiovascular events (CV) events are insufficient to make recommendations for cardiologists, diabetologists, urologists, and more, and the association between CV events and ED degree is unclear.

AIM:

To assess whether ED was a risk factor for CV events in a comprehensive literature review and meta-analysis.

METHODS:

PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, Medline, and the Web of Science were searched for eligible studies. The protocol for this meta-analysis is available from PROSPERO (CRD42018086138).

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:

The main outcomes included cardiovascular disease (CVD), coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, and all-cause mortality. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses were conducted to detect potential bias.

RESULTS:

25 eligible studies involving 154,794 individuals were included in our meta-analysis. Compared with those of men without ED, the CVD risk of ED patients was significantly increased by 43% (relative risk [RR] =1.43; P < .001), CHD was increased by 59% (RR = 1.59; P < .001), stroke was increased by 34% (RR = 1.34; P < .001), and all-cause mortality was increased by 33% (RR = 1.33; P < .001). Older individuals with ED (≥55 years), those with ED of a shorter duration (<7 years), and those with higher rates of diabetes (≥20%) and smoking (≥40%) were more prone to develop CVD. Additionally, severe ED was proven to predict higher CVD and all-cause mortality risk. The standardized model proposed here can be properly applied for screening early CV events.

CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS:

The evidence prompts the diligent observation of at-risk men and reinforces the importance of early treatment to prevent CV events.

STRENGTHS & LIMITATIONS:

Larger sample sizes from recent prospective cohort studies were included to provide more up-to-date, reliable, and comprehensive results. Moreover, the results were robust regarding consistency across sensitivity and subgroup analyses and remained consistent; even pre-excluded retrospective or cross-sectional studies were included. We constructed a standardized model that addresses the study's innovations and implications for the first time. However, not all included studies were randomized controlled trials, which might downgrade this evidence.

CONCLUSIONS:

Risk of total CVD, CHD, stroke, and all-cause mortality was significantly increased in populations with ED, and severe ED is of particular concern. The evidence suggests the need for diligent observation of at-risk men and reinforces the importance of early treatment to prevent CV events. Zhao B, Hong Z, Wei Y, et al. Erectile Dysfunction Predicts Cardiovascular Events as an Independent Risk Factor: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. J Sex Med 2019;16:1005-1017.

KEYWORDS:

Cardiovascular Disease; Coronary Heart Disease; Erectile Dysfunction; Meta-Analysis; Stroke

PMID:
31104857
DOI:
10.1016/j.jsxm.2019.04.004

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