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Hematol Transfus Cell Ther. 2019 Apr 26. pii: S2531-1379(19)30049-5. doi: 10.1016/j.htct.2019.01.004. [Epub ahead of print]

Predictors of mortality among patients with acute leukemias admitted to an intensive care unit specialized in patients with hematological disease at a Brazilian hospital.

Author information

1
Universidade de Pernambuco (UPE), Recife, PE, Brazil. Electronic address: llorenacosta@gmail.com.
2
Universidade de Pernambuco (UPE), Recife, PE, Brazil; Fundação de Hematologia e Hemoterapia de Pernambuco (Hemope), Recife, PE, Brazil.
3
Fundação de Hematologia e Hemoterapia de Pernambuco (Hemope), Recife, PE, Brazil.
4
Universidade de Pernambuco (UPE), Recife, PE, Brazil.

Abstract

INTRODUCTION:

Hematologists deal every day with high mortality rates of acute leukemia patients. Many times these patients need Intensive Care Unit (ICU) support and some general ICU teams believe that these patients have a much greater chance of dying than patients with other pathologies. In Brazil, data related to mortality rates and ICUs for acute leukemia patients are scarce.

METHODS:

Therefore, to assess mortality predictors in patients with acute leukemia admitted to a specialized hematological ICU, we evaluated demographics, supportive care, hospitalization time, disease status, admitting diagnosis, neutropenia, number of transfusions and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE)/Sepsis Related Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) scores as possible factors associated with mortality. Data were extracted from the first admission records of 110 patients with acute leukemia admitted to the Hemocentro de Pernambuco (Hemope) ICU between 2006 and 2009.

RESULTS:

In this retrospective cohort study, 72/110 of the patients were men, and 64/110 were from the metropolitan area of Recife. The patients' age median was 43.5 years (±17.9); 67.3% had acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and 32.7% had acute lymphoid leukemia. The main admitting diagnosis in the ICU was sepsis (66.7%). The mean APACHE II score was 18.3. Of the total, 65 (59%) died, and the mortality rate was independently related to longer hospitalization (p<0.001), the increase in the APACHE II score (p<0.038) and having received hemodialysis (p<0.006). Neutropenia, receiving multiple transfusions and using any kind of mechanical ventilation or vasoactive drug on admission were not relevant to mortality. Factors associated with higher mortality rates were: longer hospitalization, increase in the APACHE II score, and use of hemodialysis.

CONCLUSION:

With these data, to prevent organ lesions before admission to the ICU, a better strategy might be to reduce mortality for leukemia patients.

KEYWORDS:

Acute leukemia; Blood malignancies; Intensive care; Mortality; Sepsis

PMID:
31103671
DOI:
10.1016/j.htct.2019.01.004
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