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Clin Transplant. 2019 May 18:e13594. doi: 10.1111/ctr.13594. [Epub ahead of print]

Multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacterial infections in solid organ transplant recipients-Guidelines from the American Society of Transplantation Infectious Diseases Community of Practice.

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Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia.
Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York.


These updated guidelines from the Infectious Diseases Community of Practice of the American Society of Transplantation review the diagnosis, prevention, and management of infections due to multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacilli in the pre- and post-transplant period. MDR Gram-negative bacilli, including carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, MDR Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii, remain a threat to successful organ transplantation. Clinicians now have access to at least five novel agents with activity against some of these organisms, with others in the advanced stages of clinical development. No agent, however, provides universal and predictable activity against any of these pathogens, and very little is available to treat infections with MDR nonfermenting Gram-negative bacilli including A baumannii. Despite advances, empiric antibiotics should be tailored to local microbiology and targeted regimens should be tailored to susceptibilities. Source control remains an important part of the therapeutic armamentarium. Morbidity and mortality associated with infections due to MDR Gram-negative organisms remain unacceptably high. Heightened infection control and antimicrobial stewardship initiatives are needed to prevent these infections, curtail their transmission, and limit the evolution of MDR Gram-negative pathogens, especially in the setting of organ transplantation.


Gram-negative bacterial infection; multidrug resistance; post-transplant infection; solid organ transplantation


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