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Trends Immunol. 2019 Jun;40(6):482-491. doi: 10.1016/j.it.2019.04.005. Epub 2019 May 14.

Regulatory Immune Mechanisms beyond Regulatory T Cells.

Author information

1
Department of Medical Cell Biology, Uppsala University, Sweden.
2
Type 1 Diabetes Center, La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology, La Jolla, CA, USA; Novo Nordisk Research Center, Seattle, WA, USA. Electronic address: matthias@lji.org.

Abstract

In autoimmunity, aggressive immune responses are counteracted by suppressive rejoinders. For instance, FOXP3-expressing regulatory T cells (Tregs), have shown remarkable effects in limiting autoimmunity in preclinical models. However, early results from human Treg trials have not been as positive. Here, we highlight questions surrounding Treg transfers as putative treatments for autoimmunity. We discuss whether lack of antigenic recognition might be key to shifting cells from contributing to an aggressive autoresponse, to being part of a regulatory network. Moreover, we argue that identifying the physiological range of immunosuppression of Tregs might help potentiate their efficacy. We propose widening the view on immunoregulation by considering the participation of CD8+ Tregs in this process, which could have major implications in autoimmunity.

PMID:
31101537
DOI:
10.1016/j.it.2019.04.005

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