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Food Chem Toxicol. 2019 Aug;130:122-129. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2019.05.018. Epub 2019 May 14.

Transcriptional study after Beauvericin and Enniatin B combined exposure in Jurkat T cells.

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Laboratory of Food Chemistry and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Valencia, Burjassot, Spain. Electronic address:
Laboratory of Food Chemistry and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Valencia, Burjassot, Spain.


Simultaneous mycotoxins toxicity is complex and non-predictable based on their individual toxicities. Beauvericin and Enniatins are emerging mycotoxins highly co-occurrent in food and feed, and their cytotoxicity has been reported in several human cell lines. RNA-seq studies of individual exposure in Jurkat cells demonstrated human genome perturbation mainly affecting mitochondrial pathways, however, both mycotoxins showed differences between their toxic responses. This study investigates the transcriptional effects of combined exposure to Beauvericin and Enniatin B (1:1) (0.1, 0.5, 1.5 μM; 24 h) in Jurkat cells by qPCR on 30 selected target genes (10 mitochondrial, 20 nuclear). Gene expression after combined and individual exposures were compared and functional data analysis (ToxPi) on the most relevant biological processes (cycle and apoptosis regulation; cholesterol metabolism and transport; cellular signaling transduction; cellular stress responses; immune regulation; protein metabolism; retinoic acid metabolism; transcription regulation) was applied to RNA-seq data from individual exposure (1.5, 3, 5 μM; 24 h; Jurkat cells). Transcriptional changes, especially at mitochondrial level, were observed after Beauvericin-Enniatin B co-exposure including down-regulation of antioxidant activity related genes. Different expression patterns between combined and individual exposures were identified. ToxPi analysis confirmed different dose-dependent relationship profiles between these two mycotoxins after individual exposure.


Beauvericin; Enniatin B; In vitro; Mitochondria; ToxPi; qPCR


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