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Am Soc Clin Oncol Educ Book. 2019 Jan;39:302-308. doi: 10.1200/EDBK_238879. Epub 2019 May 17.

All Men Are Created Equal: Addressing Disparities in Prostate Cancer Care.

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1 University of California, San Francisco, CA.
2 Duke University Cancer Institute, Durham, NC.
3 Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA.
4 Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, Bellinzona, Switzerland.
5 Kantonsspital St. Gallen, St. Gallen, Switzerland.
6 University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom.


The global cancer burden is estimated to have risen to 18.1 million new cases and 9.6 million deaths in 2018. By 2030, the number of cancer cases is projected to increase to 24.6 million and the number of cancer deaths, to 13 million. Global data mask the social and health disparities that influence cancer incidence and survival. Inequality in exposure to carcinogens, education, access to quality diagnostic services, and affordable treatments all affect the probability of survival. Worryingly, despite the fact that many cancers could be prevented by stronger public health actions and many others could be largely cured by better access to diagnostics and affordable treatments, the international community has yet to make a substantial move to tackle this challenge. In prostate cancer, studies show that there are geographic and racial/ethnic distribution differences as well as a number of other variables, including environmental factors, limited access to standard cancer treatments, reduced probability to be included in trials, and the financial burden of cancer treatments. Financial burden for the patients can result in poor adherence, increased debt, and poor long-term outcomes. The following article will discuss some of the important causes for disparity in prostate cancer and prostate cancer care, focused on the current situation in the United States, as well as possible remedies to address these causes.


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