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Am Soc Clin Oncol Educ Book. 2019 Jan;39:50-60. doi: 10.1200/EDBK_238965. Epub 2019 May 17.

Epidemiology and Implementation of Cancer Prevention in Disparate Populations and Settings.

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1 Sidney Kimmel Cancer Center, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA.
2 University of Kentucky Markey Cancer Center, Lexington, KY.
3 University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI.
4 Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.


Successful cancer prevention strategies must be tailored to support usability. In this article, we will focus on cancer prevention strategies in populations that differ by race and ethnicity, place and location, sexual orientation and gender identity, and age by providing examples of effective approaches. An individual may belong to none of these categories, to all of these categories, or to some. This intersectionality of belonging characterizes individuals and shapes their experiences. Even within a category, broad diversity exists. Effective cancer prevention strategies comprehensively engage the community at multiple levels of influence and may effectively include lay health workers and faith-based cancer education interventions. Health system efforts that integrate cancer health with other health promotion activities show promise. At the individual physician level, culturally literate approaches have demonstrated success. For example, when discussing cancer screening tests with older adults, clinicians should indicate whether any data suggest that the screening test improves quality or quantity of life and the lag time to benefit from the screening test. This will allow older adults to make an informed cancer screening decision based on a realistic understanding of the potential benefits and risks and their values and preferences. Addressing individual and health system bias remains a challenge. Quality improvement strategies can address gaps in quality of care with respect to timeliness of care, coordination of care, and patient experience. The time is ripe for research on effective and interdisciplinary prevention strategies that harness expertise from preventive medicine, behavioral medicine, implementation science, e-health, telemedicine, and other diverse fields of health promotion.

[Available on 2020-05-17]

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