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Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019 May 15;16(10). pii: E1703. doi: 10.3390/ijerph16101703.

Use of the Phase-Based Model of Smoking Treatment to Guide Intervention Development for Persons Living with HIV Who Self-Identify as African American Tobacco Smokers.

Author information

1
School of Nursing, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA. rb897@columbia.edu.
2
School of Nursing, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA. jc5207@cumc.columbia.edu.
3
School of Nursing, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA. tnp2113@cumc.columbia.edu.
4
School of Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA. ming-chun.huang@case.edu.
5
Case Comprehensive Cancer Center, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA. monica.hooper@case.edu.

Abstract

Cigarette smoking is highly prevalent among persons living with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (PLWH), with rates as high 50% as compared to 14% in the general U.S. population. Tobacco use causes morbidity and mortality in PLWH, and tobacco-related harm is substantially higher in PLWH than smokers in the general population, providing the scientific premise for developing effective tobacco cessation interventions in this population. To better address this issue, we conducted six focus group sessions with 45 African American smokers who are living with HIV to understand the barriers to smoking cessation and the strategies that would be helpful to overcome these barriers. We organized our findings by the Phase-Based Model of Smoking Treatment to understand the intervention components that are needed at each phase to help PLWH successfully quit smoking. Participants in our focus group sessions articulated key components for incorporation into tobacco cessation intervention for PLWH: a personalized plan for quitting, reminders about that plan, and a support system. Participants thought that their HIV and tobacco use were disassociated. Participants described barriers to the use of pharmacotherapy, including adverse side effects of the gum and patch and concerns about the negative health effects of some oral medications. Substance use was identified as a commonly co-occurring condition as well as a barrier to successfully ceasing to smoke tobacco products. In summary, these findings offer information on the components of a tobacco cessation intervention for PLWH, namely reminders, a support system, substance use treatment, and monitoring to prevent relapse.

KEYWORDS:

African American; HIV; intervention; tobacco cessation

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