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Nutrients. 2019 May 14;11(5). pii: E1073. doi: 10.3390/nu11051073.

Impact of Gut Microbiota Composition on Onset and Progression of Chronic Non-Communicable Diseases.

Author information

1
UOC of Internal Medicine-Center of Hypertension and Nephrology Unit, Department of Systems Medicine, University of Rome, via Montpellier 1, 00133 Rome, Italy. annalisa.noce@uniroma2.it.
2
UOC of Internal Medicine-Center of Hypertension and Nephrology Unit, Department of Systems Medicine, University of Rome, via Montpellier 1, 00133 Rome, Italy. giul.marr@gmail.com.
3
PhD School of Applied Medical- Surgical Sciences, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Via Montpellier 1, 00133 Rome, Italy. giul.marr@gmail.com.
4
UOC of Internal Medicine-Center of Hypertension and Nephrology Unit, Department of Systems Medicine, University of Rome, via Montpellier 1, 00133 Rome, Italy. francesca.didaniele@gmail.com.
5
UOC of Internal Medicine-Center of Hypertension and Nephrology Unit, Department of Systems Medicine, University of Rome, via Montpellier 1, 00133 Rome, Italy. e.ottaviani@hotmail.it.
6
UOC of Internal Medicine-Center of Hypertension and Nephrology Unit, Department of Systems Medicine, University of Rome, via Montpellier 1, 00133 Rome, Italy. georgia.wilson.jones@gmail.com.
7
Department of Agriculture and Forest Sciences (DAFNE), University of Tuscia, 01100 Viterbo, Italy. roberta.bernini@unitus.it.
8
PHYTOLAB-DISIA-Department of Informatics, Statistics and Applications G. Parenti, University of Florence, Viale Morgagni, 59-50134 Florence, Italy and QuMAP-PIN-Piazza Giovanni Ciardi, 25, 59100 Prato (PO), Italy. annalisa.romani@unifi.it.
9
UOC of Internal Medicine-Center of Hypertension and Nephrology Unit, Department of Systems Medicine, University of Rome, via Montpellier 1, 00133 Rome, Italy. valerovix@yahoo.it.

Abstract

In recent years, mounting scientific evidence has emerged regarding the evaluation of the putative correlation between the gut microbiota composition and the presence of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs), such as diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, and arterial hypertension. The aim of this narrative review is to examine the current literature with respect to the relationship between intestinal dysbiosis and the insurgence/progression of chronic NCDs, analyzing the physiopathological mechanisms that can induce microbiota modification in the course of these pathologies, and the possible effect induced by microbiota alteration upon disease onset. Therapy based on probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, postbiotics, and fecal microbiota transplant can represent a useful therapeutic tool, as has been highlighted on animal studies. To this moment, clinical studies that intended to demonstrate the beneficial effect induced by this kind of oral supplementation on the gut microbiota composition, and subsequent amelioration of signs and symptoms of chronic NCDs have been conducted on limited sample populations for a limited follow-up period. Therefore, to fully evaluate the therapeutic value of this kind of intervention, it would be ideal to design ample population; randomized clinical trials with a lengthy follow up period.

KEYWORDS:

chronic non-communicable diseases; dysbiosis; gut microbiota; prebiotics; probiotics; synbiotics

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