Send to

Choose Destination
Mol Cells. 2019 May 31;42(5):406-417. doi: 10.14348/molcells.2019.0009.

Overexpression of RICE FLOWERING LOCUS T 1 (RFT1) Induces Extremely Early Flowering in Rice.

Author information

Graduate School of Biotechnology and Crop Biotech Institute, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 17104, Korea.
These authors contributed equally to this work.


RICE FLOWERING LOCUS T 1 (RFT1) is a major florigen that functions to induce reproductive development in the shoot apical meristem (SAM). To further our study of RFT1, we overexpressed the gene and examined the expression patterns of major regulatory genes during floral transition and inflorescence development. Overexpression induced extremely early flowering in the transgenics, and a majority of those calli directly formed spikelets with a few spikelets, thus bypassing normal vegetative development. FRUITFULL (FUL)-clade genes OsMADS14, OsMADS15, and OsMADS18 were highly induced in the RFT1-expressing meristems. Os-MADS34 was also induced in the meristems. This indicated that RFT1 promotes the expression of major regulatory genes that are important for inflorescence development. RFT1 overexpression also induced SEPALLATA (SEP)-clade genes OsMADS1, OsMADS5, and OsMADS7 in the greening calli before floral transition occurred. This suggested their possible roles at the early reproductive stages. We found it interesting that expression of OsFD1 as well as OsFD2 and OsFD3 was strongly increased in the RFT1-expressing calli and spikelets. At a low frequency, those calli produced plants with a few leaves that generated a panicle with a small number of spikelets. In the transgenic leaves, the FULclade genes and OsMADS34 were induced, but SEP-clade gene expression was not increased. This indicated that OsMADS14, OsMADS15, OsMADS18, and OsMADS34 act immediately downstream of RFT1.


FRUITFULL; OsFD1; RFT1; SEPALLATA; florigen; flowering

Free full text

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Publishing M2Community
Loading ...
Support Center