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Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol. 2019 Apr;54(2):184-192. doi: 10.1080/10409238.2019.1611734. Epub 2019 May 14.

Vitamin A and vitamin D regulate the microbial complexity, barrier function, and the mucosal immune responses to ensure intestinal homeostasis.

Author information

1
a Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Science , The Pennsylvania State University , University Park , PA , USA.
2
b Center for Molecular Immunology and Infectious Disease , The Pennsylvania State University , University Park , PA , USA.

Abstract

Diet is an important regulator of the gastrointestinal microbiota. Vitamin A and vitamin D deficiencies result in less diverse, dysbiotic microbial communities and increased susceptibility to infection or injury of the gastrointestinal tract. The vitamin A and vitamin D receptors are nuclear receptors expressed by the host, but not the microbiota. Vitamin A- and vitamin D-mediated regulation of the intestinal epithelium and mucosal immune cells underlies the effects of these nutrients on the microbiota. Vitamin A and vitamin D regulate the expression of tight junction proteins on intestinal epithelial cells that are critical for barrier function in the gut. Other shared functions of vitamin A and vitamin D include the support of innate lymphoid cells that produce IL-22, suppression of IFN-γ and IL-17 by T cells, and induction of regulatory T cells in the mucosal tissues. There are some unique functions of vitamin A and D; for example, vitamin A induces gut homing receptors on T cells, while vitamin D suppresses gut homing receptors on T cells. Together, vitamin A- and vitamin D-mediated regulation of the intestinal epithelium and mucosal immune system shape the microbial communities in the gut to maintain homeostasis.

KEYWORDS:

Vitamin A; gastrointestinal tract; microbiota; mucosal immune system; nutrition; vitamin D

PMID:
31084433
PMCID:
PMC6629036
[Available on 2020-05-14]
DOI:
10.1080/10409238.2019.1611734
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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