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Tissue Eng Part A. 2019 May 14. doi: 10.1089/ten.TEA.2019.0102. [Epub ahead of print]

3D printed polycaprolactone scaffolds for bone regeneration-success and future perspective.

Teoh SH1,2, Goh BT3,4, Lim J5.

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Nanyang Technological University, School Chemical & Biomedical Engineering , Singapore, Singapore.
Nanyang Technological University, Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, Singapore, Singapore ;
National Dental Centre Singapore, Restorative Dentistry, Singapore, Singapore.
Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School, 121579, Singapore, Singapore ;
Nanyang Technological University, 54761, School of Chemical & Biomedical Engineering, Singapore, Singapore, Singapore ;


Cells require a home. 3D printing provides the technology to enable the manufacture of 3D scaffolds with interconnected porosity. 3D printed medical grade polycaprolactone (mPCL) scaffolds were introduced more than 10 years ago as a scaffold for bone tissue engineering and implanted in more than 20,000 patients. The clinical successes from burr hole covers, dental ridge preservation, customized cranioplasty to orbital floor repairs were attributed to the microstructure that mimics the trabecular bone which encourages vascularization and cell-cell communications. The slow degradation mPCL allows time for bone remodeling. Future perspective on translational bone tissue engineering will rely on the cocktail of cells (eg stem cells and neutrophils) that addresses angiogenesis from the beginning and the biodegradable products that can enhance the bone forming cells. The latter is important as bone cells require trace elements of minerals such as magnesium to enable them to function in a sustainable manner. The effect of electromagnetic stimulation opens up new avenues. The search for clinical trials to directly assess the quality of the human bone safely in a manner that is approved by ethics committee has been one of the key focuses in many groups and we propose the tooth socket dentoalveolar model.


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