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J Neurotrauma. 2019 May 14. doi: 10.1089/neu.2018.6303. [Epub ahead of print]

Traumatic Brain Injury Results in Dynamic Brain Structure Changes Leading to Acute and Chronic Motor Function Deficits in a Pediatric Piglet Model.

Author information

1
University of Georgia, 1355, Animal and Dairy Science, Athens, Georgia, United States.
2
University of Georgia, 1355, Regenerative Bioscience Center, Athens, Georgia, United States ; hollyk17@uga.edu.
3
University of Georgia, 1355, Regenerative Bioscience Center, Athens, Georgia, United States ; elwyatt114@gmail.com.
4
Emory University School of Medicine, 12239, Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Atlanta, Georgia, United States ; wangsilun@gmail.com.
5
Emory University School of Medicine, 12239, Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Atlanta, Georgia, United States ; Candace.Fleischer@emory.edu.
6
University of Georgia, 1355, Department of Pathology, Athens, Georgia, United States.
7
University of Georgia, 1355, Regenerative Bioscience Center, Athens, Georgia, United States ; howerth@uga.edu.
8
University of Georgia, 1355, Regenerative Bioscience Center, Athens, Georgia, United States ; kyleejo@uga.edu.
9
Emory University School of Medicine, 12239, Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Atlanta, Georgia, United States ; hmao@emory.edu.
10
University of Georgia, 1355, Department of Small Animal Medicine and Surgery, Athens, Georgia, United States.
11
University of Georgia, 1355, Regenerative Bioscience Center, Athens, Georgia, United States ; srplatt@uga.edu.
12
University of Georgia, 1355, Regenerative Bioscience Center, Athens, Georgia, United States ; westf@uga.edu.

Abstract

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death and disability in children. Pediatric TBI patients often suffer from crippling cognitive, emotional, and motor function deficits that have negative lifelong effects. The objective of this study was to longitudinally assess TBI pathophysiology using multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), gait analysis, and histological approaches in a pediatric piglet model. TBI was produced by controlled cortical impact (CCI) in Landrace piglets. MRI data including proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) was collected 24 hours and 12 weeks post-TBI and gait analysis was performed at multiple time points over 12 weeks post-TBI. A subset of animals were sacrificed 24 hours, 1, 4, and 12 weeks post-TBI for histological analysis. MRI results demonstrated that TBI led to a significant brain lesion and midline shift as well as microscopic tissue damage with altered brain diffusivity, decreased white matter integrity, and reduced cerebral blood flow. MRS showed a range of neurochemical changes after TBI. Histological analysis revealed neuronal loss, astrogliosis/astrocytosis, and microglia activation. Furthermore, gait analysis showed transient impairments in cadence, cycle time, % stance, step length, and stride length as well as long-term impairments in weight distribution after TBI. Taken together, this study illustrates the distinct time course of TBI pathoanatomic and functional responses up to 12 weeks post-TBI in a piglet TBI model. The study of TBI injury and recovery mechanisms as well as the testing of therapeutics in this translational model are likely to be more predictive of human responses and clinical outcomes.

KEYWORDS:

ANIMAL STUDIES; LOCOMOTOR FUNCTION; MRI; TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY; controlled cortical impact

PMID:
31084386
DOI:
10.1089/neu.2018.6303

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