Send to

Choose Destination
PLoS One. 2019 May 13;14(5):e0216887. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0216887. eCollection 2019.

Exploration of facilitators and barriers to the implementation of a guideline to reduce HIV-related stigma and discrimination in the Ethiopian healthcare settings: A descriptive qualitative study.

Author information

Jimma University, Department of Health, Behavior and Society, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia.
Ethiopian Evidence Based Health Care Centre: JBI Center of Excellence, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia.
The Joanna Briggs Institute, the University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia.
Department of Health Policy and Management, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia.
Department of Global Health and Population, T.H. Chan Harvard School of Public Health, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.



The barriers to uptake of guidelines underscore the importance of going beyound the mere synthesis of evidence to tailoring the synthesized evidence into local contexts and situations. This requires in-depth exploration of local factors. This project aimed to assess contextual barriers and facilitators to the implementation of a guideline developed to reduce HIV-related stigma and discrimination (SAD) in the Ethiopian healthcare setting.


A descriptive qualitative research study was conducted using a semi-structured interview guide informed by the Registered Nurses Association of Ontario (RNAO) framework. The interview was conducted among a purposive sample of seven key informants from Jimma University and Jimma Zone HIV Prevention and Control Office. The interviews were transcribed, coded and analysed using Atlas ti version 7.5 software packages.


Guideline attributes, provider-related factors and organizational and practice-related were identified as factors that can potentially affect the implementation of the guideline. The presence of expert patients were identified as agents for guideline implementation, whilst regular health education programs in addition to initiatives related to service quality improvement, were identified as suitable platforms to assist with the implementation of this guideline. Study participants recommended that the guideline should be disseminated through multidisciplinary team (MDT) meetings, gate keepers such as opinion leaders and unit heads, one-to-five networks and mentorship programs, as well as training, workshops and posters. The current study also indicated that continuous monitoring, evaluation and mentorship are critical elements in the integration of the guideline into the system of the hospital.


This study identified that guideline implementation can make use of existing structures and pathways such as MDT meetings, service quality improvement initiatives, one-to-five networks, training and workshops. Teamwork and partnership with stakeholders should be strengthened to strengthen facilitators and tackle barriers related to the implementation of the guideline. Effective implementation of the guideline also requires establishing an implementation structure. Moreover, indicators developed to track the implementation of stigma reduction guideline should be integrated into mentorship, MDT meetings and evaluation programs of the hospital to improve performance and to assist data collection on implementation experiences.

Free full text

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Public Library of Science
Loading ...
Support Center